Polyphony In Modern Music

Tuesday, November 16, 2021 6:07:34 PM

Polyphony In Modern Music



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And enjoy the bliss of everlasting light. A sequence is a liturgical poem sung, when used, after the Tract or Alleluia, if present. The sequence employed in the Requiem, Dies irae , attributed to Thomas of Celano c. An early English version was translated by William Josiah Irons in Lord Jesus Christ, King of glory, deliver the souls of all the faithful departed from the pains of hell and from the bottomless pit: deliver them from the lion's mouth, that hell swallow them not up, that they fall not into darkness, but let the standard-bearer holy Michael lead them into that holy light: Which Thou didst promise of old to Abraham and to his seed. Hostias et preces tibi, Domine, laudis offerimus: tu suscipe pro animabus illis, quarum hodie memoriam facimus: fac eas, Domine, de morte transire ad vitam.

We offer to Thee, O Lord, sacrifices and prayers: do Thou receive them in behalf of those souls of whom we make memorial this day. Grant them, O Lord, to pass from death to that life, Which Thou didst promise of old to Abraham and to his seed. This is as the Sanctus prayer in the Ordinary of the Mass :. Hosanna in excelsis. Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini. Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of Hosts. Heaven and earth are full of Thy glory. Hosanna in the highest. Blessed is He Who cometh in the Name of the Lord. This is as the Agnus Dei in the Ordinary of the Mass , but with the petitions miserere nobis changed to dona eis requiem , and dona nobis pacem to dona eis requiem sempiternam : [2].

Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi: dona eis requiem. Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi: dona eis requiem sempiternam. Lamb of God , Who takest away the sins of the world, grant them rest. Lamb of God, Who takest away the sins of the world, grant them rest. Lamb of God, Who takest away the sins of the world, grant them eternal rest. Eternal rest give to them, O Lord, and let perpetual light shine upon them: With Thy Saints for evermore, for Thou art gracious.

As mentioned above, there is no Gloria , Alleluia or Credo in these musical settings. The Pie Jesu consists of the final words of the Dies irae followed by the final words of the Agnus Dei. Pie Jesu Domine, dona eis requiem. Dona eis requiem sempiternam. Merciful Lord Jesus, grant them rest; grant them eternal rest. Musical Requiem settings sometimes include passages from the "Absolution at the bier" Absolutio ad feretrum or "Commendation of the dead person" referred to also as the Absolution of the dead , which in the case of a funeral, follows the conclusion of the Mass. Tremens factus sum ego, et timeo, dum discussio venerit, atque ventura ira. Deliver me, O Lord, from death eternal in that awful day.

When the heavens and the earth shall be moved: When Thou shalt come to judge the world by fire. Dread and trembling have laid hold on me, and I fear exceedingly because of the judgment and of the wrath to come. When the heavens and the earth shall be moved. O that day, that day of wrath, of sore distress and of all wretchedness, that great day and exceeding bitter. When Thou shalt come to judge the world by fire. Eternal rest grant unto them, O Lord, and let perpetual light shine upon them. In paradisum deducant te Angeli: in tuo adventu suscipiant te Martyres, et perducant te in civitatem sanctam Ierusalem.

May the Angels lead thee into paradise: may the Martyrs receive thee at thy coming, and lead thee into the holy city of Jerusalem. May the choir of Angels receive thee, and with Lazarus , who once was poor, mayest thou have eternal rest. For many centuries the texts of the requiem were sung to Gregorian melodies. The Requiem by Johannes Ockeghem , written sometime in the later half of the 15th century, is the earliest surviving polyphonic setting. There was a setting by the elder composer Dufay , possibly earlier, which is now lost: Ockeghem's may have been modelled on it. In the early polyphonic settings of the Requiem, there is considerable textural contrast within the compositions themselves: simple chordal or fauxbourdon -like passages are contrasted with other sections of contrapuntal complexity, such as in the Offertory of Ockeghem's Requiem.

In the 16th century, more and more composers set the Requiem mass. In contrast to practice in setting the Mass Ordinary, many of these settings used a cantus-firmus technique, something which had become quite archaic by mid-century. In addition, these settings used less textural contrast than the early settings by Ockeghem and Brumel, although the vocal scoring was often richer, for example in the six-voice Requiem by Jean Richafort which he wrote for the death of Josquin des Prez. Over 2, Requiem compositions have been composed to the present day.

Typically the Renaissance settings, especially those not written on the Iberian Peninsula , may be performed a cappella i. There is great variation between compositions in how much of liturgical text is set to music. Most composers omit sections of the liturgical prescription, most frequently the Gradual and the Tract. The Introit and Kyrie , being immediately adjacent in the actual Roman Catholic liturgy, are often composed as one movement. A counter-reaction to this tendency came from the Cecilian movement , which recommended restrained accompaniment for liturgical music, and frowned upon the use of operatic vocal soloists.

Many composers have composed a Requiem. Within the context of the Western musical tradition, the term polyphony is usually used to refer to music of the late Middle Ages and Renaissance. Baroque forms such as fugue , which might be called polyphonic, are usually described instead as contrapuntal. This point-against-point conception is opposed to "successive composition", where voices were written in an order with each new voice fitting into the whole so far constructed, which was previously assumed.

The term polyphony is also sometimes used more broadly, to describe any musical texture that is not monophonic. Such a perspective considers homophony as a sub-type of polyphony. Traditional non-professional polyphony has a wide, if uneven, distribution among the peoples of the world. It is believed that the origins of polyphony in traditional music vastly predate the emergence of polyphony in European professional music. Currently there are two contradictory approaches to the problem of the origins of vocal polyphony: the Cultural Model, and the Evolutionary Model. Although the exact origins of polyphony in the Western church traditions are unknown, the treatises Musica enchiriadis and Scolica enchiriadis , both dating from c. These treatises provided examples of two-voice note-against-note embellishments of chants using parallel octaves, fifths, and fourths.

Rather than being fixed works, they indicated ways of improvising polyphony during performance. The Winchester Troper , from c. European polyphony rose out of melismatic organum , the earliest harmonization of the chant. In the thirteenth century, the chant-based tenor was becoming altered, fragmented, and hidden beneath secular tunes, obscuring the sacred texts as composers continued to play with this new invention called polyphony. The lyrics of love poems might be sung above sacred texts in the form of a trope , or the sacred text might be placed within a familiar secular melody.

The oldest surviving piece of six-part music is the English rota Sumer is icumen in c. These musical innovations appeared in a greater context of societal change. After the first millennium, European monks started translating Greek philosophy into the vernacular. Translations into Latin from Arabic allowed these philosophical works to impact Western Europe. This sparked a number of innovations in medicine, science, art, and music. European polyphony rose prior to, and during the period of the Western Schism.

Avignon , the seat of popes and then antipopes , was a vigorous center of secular music-making, much of which influenced sacred polyphony. The notion of secular and sacred music merging in the papal court also offended some medieval ears. It gave church music more of a jocular performance quality supplanting the solemnity of worship they were accustomed to. The use of and attitude toward polyphony varied widely in the Avignon court from the beginning to the end of its religious importance in the fourteenth century.

Harmony was considered frivolous, impious, lascivious, and an obstruction to the audibility of the words. Instruments, as well tain modes, were actually forbidden in the church because of their association with secular music and pagan rites. Dissonant clashes of notes give a creepy feeling that was labeled as evil, fueling their argument against polyphony as being the devil's music.

The oldest extant polyphonic setting of the mass attributable to one composer is Guillaume de Machaut 's Messe de Nostre Dame , dated to , during the pontificate of Pope Urban V. The Second Vatican Council said Gregorian chant should be the focus of liturgical services, without excluding other forms of sacred music, including polyphony. English Protestant west gallery music included polyphonic multi-melodic harmony, including fuguing tunes , by the midth century.

This tradition passed with emigrants to North America, where it was proliferated in tunebooks, including shape-note books like The Southern Harmony and The Sacred Harp. While this style of singing has largely disappeared from British and North American sacred music, it survived in the rural Southern United States , until it again began to grow a following throughout the United States and even in places such as Ireland, the United Kingdom, Poland, Australia and New Zealand, among others. Polyphonic singing in the Balkans is traditional folk singing of this part of southern Europe. It is also called ancient , archaic or old-style singing. Incipient polyphony previously primitive polyphony includes antiphony and call and response , drones , and parallel intervals.

In terms of Western classical music, it is not strictly polyphonic, due to the drone parts having no melodic role, and can better be described as multipart. The polyphonic singing tradition of Epirus is a form of traditional folk polyphony practiced among Aromanians , Albanians, Greeks, and ethnic Macedonians in southern Albania and northwestern Greece. Albanian polyphonic singing can be divided into two major stylistic groups as performed by the Tosks and Labs of southern Albania. The drone is performed in two ways: among the Tosks, it is always continuous and sung on the syllable 'e', using staggered breathing; while among the Labs, the drone is sometimes sung as a rhythmic tone, performed to the text of the song.

It can be differentiated between two-, three- and four-voice polyphony. The term iso refers to the drone, which accompanies the iso-polyphonic singing and is related to the ison of Byzantine church music, where the drone group accompanies the song. The French island Corsica has a unique style of music called Paghjella that is known for its polyphony.

Traditionally, Paghjella contains a staggered entrance and continues with the three singers carrying independent melodies. This music tends to contain much melisma and is sung in a nasal temperament. Additionally, many paghjella songs contain a picardy third. After paghjella's revival in the s, it mutated. In the s it had moved away from some of its more traditional features as it became much more heavily produced and tailored towards western tastes. There were now four singers, significantly less melisma, it was much more structured, and it exemplified more homophony. To the people of Corsica, the polyphony of paghjella represented freedom; it had been a source of cultural pride in Corsica and many felt that this movement away from the polyphonic style meant a movement away from paghjella's cultural ties.

This resulted in a transition in the s. Paghjella again had a strong polyphonic style and a less structured meter. Cantu a tenore is a traditional style of polyphonic singing in Sardinia. Polyphony in the Republic of Georgia is arguably the oldest polyphony in the Christian world. Georgian polyphony is traditionally sung in three parts with strong dissonances, parallel fifths, and a unique tuning system based on perfect fifths.

Polyphony is present in all genres where the social environment provides more than one singer to support the melodic line. The ethnomusicologist Izaly Zemtsovsky reported witnessing an example of such an incident, in which an Abkhazian dozing at a bus stop started singing a drone to support a singer unknown to him. Two part drone songs are considered by Abkhazian and Georgian scholars the most important indigenous style of Abkhazian polyphony.

Two-part drone songs are dominating in Gudauta district, the core region of ethnic Abkhazians. Millennia of cultural, social and economic interactions between Abkhazians and Georgians on this territory resulted in reciprocal influences, and in particular, creation of a new, so-called "Georgian style" of three-part singing in Abkhazia, unknown among Adyghes. This style is based on two leading melodic lines performed by soloists - akhkizkhuo singing together with the drone or ostinato base argizra.

Indigenous Abkhazian style of three-part polyphony uses double drones in fourths, fifths, or octaves and one leading melodic line at one time. Abkhazians use a very specific cadence: tetrachordal downward movement, ending on the interval of a fourth. Chechen and Ingush traditional music can be defined by their tradition of vocal polyphony. Chechen and Ingush polyphony is based on a drone and is mostly three-part, unlike most other north Caucasian traditions' two-part polyphony. The middle part carries the main melody accompanied by a double drone, holding the interval of a fifth around the melody.

Intervals and chords are often dissonances sevenths, seconds, fourths , and traditional Chechen and Ingush songs use sharper dissonances than other North Caucasian traditions. The specific cadence of a final, dissonant three-part chord, consisting of fourth and the second on top c-f-g , is almost unique.

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