Essay On Irish Potato Famine

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Essay On Irish Potato Famine

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The Irish Potato Famine - Explained

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There was fighting in Europe, transportation was interrupted, and the American consulates weren't open. Fewer than 10 percent of the immigration quotas from Europe were used from to In many ways, the country was still fearful of the influence of foreign-born people. Resident aliens are people who are living permanently in the United States but are not citizens. Oftentimes, there was no reason for these people to be detained, other than fear and racism. Beginning in , the government even detained American citizens who were ethnically Japanese. The government did this despite the 14th Amendment of the Constitution, which says "nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty or property without the due process of law.

Also because of the war, the Chinese Exclusion Act was repealed in China had quickly become an important ally of the United States against Japan; therefore, the U. Chinese immigrants could once again legally enter the country, although they did so only in small numbers for the next couple of decades. Many people wanted to leave war-torn Europe and come to America. President Harry S. Truman urged the government to help the "appalling dislocation" of hundreds of thousands of Europeans. In , Truman said, "everything possible should be done at once to facilitate the entrance of some of these displaced persons and refugees into the United States.

I believe that the admission of these persons will add to the strength and energy of the Nation. It allowed for refugees to come to the United States who otherwise wouldn't have been allowed to enter under existing immigration law. The Act marked the beginning of a period of refugee immigration. It also allowed non-Europeans to come to the United States as refugees. The Refugee Relief Act also reflected the U. The Soviet Union was also controlling the governments of other countries.

The Act allowed people fleeing from those countries to enter the United States. When he signed the Act, President Dwight D. Eisenhower said, "This action demonstrates again America's traditional concern for the homeless, the persecuted, and the less fortunate of other lands. It is a dramatic contrast to the tragic events taking place in East Germany and in other captive nations. In , there was a revolution in Hungary in which the people protested the Soviet-controlled government. Many people fled the country during the short revolution. They were known as "fifty-sixers". About 36, Hungarians came to the United States during this time. Some of their countrymen also moved to Canada. In , Cuba experienced a revolution, and Fidel Castro took over the government.

His dictatorship aligned itself with the Soviet Union. More than , Cubans left their country in the years after the revolution; many of them settled in Florida. In , President Lyndon B. This act repealed the quota system based on national origins that had been in place since This was the most significant change to immigration policy in decades. Instead of quotas, immigration policy was now based on a preference for reuniting families and bringing highly skilled workers to the United States. This was a change because in the past, many immigrants were less skilled and less educated than the average American worker. In the modern period, many immigrants would be doctors, scientists, and high-tech workers.

Because Europe was recovering from the war, fewer Europeans were deciding to move to America. But people from the rest of world were eager to move here. Asians and Latin Americans, in particular, were significant groups in the new wave of immigration. Within five years after the act was signed, for example, Asian immigration had doubled. During the s and s, America was involved in a war in Vietnam.

Vietnam is located in Southeast Asia, on the Indochina peninsula. From the s into the s there was a great deal of conflict in the area. After the war, Vietnamese refugees started coming to the United States. During the s, about , Vietnamese came, and hundreds of thousands more continued to arrive during the next two decades. In , the government passed the Refugee Act, a law that was meant specifically to help refugees who needed to come to the country. Refugees come because they fear persecution due to their race, religion, political beliefs, or other reasons. The United States and other countries signed treaties, or legal agreements, that said they should help refugees.

The Refugee Act protected this type of immigrant's right to come to America. During the s, waves of immigrants arrived from Central America, the Caribbean, and South America. Hundreds of thousands of people came just from Cuba, fleeing the oppressive dictatorship of Fidel Castro. This was a significant new wave of immigrants: During the s, 8 million immigrants came from Latin America, a number nearly equal to the total figure of European immigrants who came to the United States from to , when European immigration was at a high point.

The new immigrants changed the makeup of America: By , Latinos in the United States were about Since , immigration has been increasing. It is at its highest point in America's history. In both the s and s, around 10 million new immigrants came to the United States. The previous record was from to , when around 8 million immigrants arrived. In , the foreign-born population of the United States was Also in that year, California became the first state in which no one ethnic group made up a majority.

By comparison, as recently as the s, two-thirds of all immigrants to the United States came from Europe or Canada. The main countries of origin for immigrants today are Mexico, the Philippines, China, Cuba, and India. About 1 in 10 residents of the United States is foreign-born. Today, the United States is a truly multicultural society. The immigration process began on the winding stairs that led to the Registry Room.

Doctors stood on the second floor and watched each person. They looked for people who had trouble walking or breathing or showed signs of other health problems. Immigrants climb the steps to the Registry Room. When the Ellis Island station was built, officials thought no more than half a million immigrants would pass through in a year. In , more than a million arrived. The highest number for a single day was 11, people. The immigration process on Ellis Island usually took three to five hours. This wasn't because the medical and legal inspections were lengthy, but because there were probably a thousand or more people in line ahead of you.

A New Land The major European powers including England, Spain, and France established colonies, which are lands controlled by a faraway government. Learn More. Mayflower in Expanding America Total U. Immigration from to by Continent of Origin. Source: U. Department of Homeland Security. Harper's Weekly. The American Dream Total U. A Place of Refuge Total U. From to , the world underwent a great deal of strife, conflict, and change. The United States suffered through the Great Depression in the s. America no longer looked like the land of opportunity, and few immigrants came.

In the postwar period, much of Europe was physically and economically in ruin. Europeans started looking to America again as a place of refuge. The idea of the immigrant as refugee, from both hardship and oppressive regimes, would change how the country thought about immigration in this period and beyond. A major change to immigration legislation in paved the way for new waves of immigration from all over of the world. Asians and Latin Americans arrived in large numbers, while European immigration declined. Today, immigration to the United States is at its highest level since the early 20th century.

In fact, as a result of the variety of these recent immigrants, the United States has become a truly multicultural society. The story of America — who we are and where we come from — is still being written. Story Photos Did You Know? The number of immigrants exceeded expectations Learn more The immigration process usually took just hours Learn more. Officials check an immigrant for eye disease. Saint Patrick's Battalion San Patricios was a group of several hundred immigrant soldiers, the majority Irish, who deserted the U. Army during the Mexican—American War because of ill treatment or sympathetic leanings to fellow Mexican Catholics.

They joined the Mexican army. In Boston between and there had been serious tensions between the bishop and the laity who wanted to control the local parishes. By , the Catholic population in Boston had increased to 30, from around 5, in , due to the influx of Irish immigrants. With the appointment of John B. Fitzpatrick as bishop in , tensions subsided as the increasingly Irish Catholic community grew to support Fitzpatrick's assertion of the bishop's control of parish government. Hughes supported Daniel O'Connell 's Catholic emancipation movement in Ireland, but rejected such radical and violent societies as the Young Irelanders and the National Brotherhood.

Hughes also disapproved of American Irish radical fringe groups, urging immigrants to assimilate themselves into American life while remaining patriotic to Ireland "only individually". In the s, Hughes campaigned for publicly-funded schools for Catholic immigrants from Ireland modelled after the successful Irish public school system in Lowell, Massachusetts. Hughes made speeches denouncing the Public School Society of New York , which mandated that all educational institutions use the King James Bible , an unacceptable proposition to Catholics. The dispute between Catholics and Protestants over the funding of schools led the New York Legislature to pass the Maclay Act in , giving New York City an elective Board of Education empowered to build and supervise schools and distribute the education fund—but with the proviso that none of the money should go to schools which taught religion.

Hughes responded by building an elaborate parochial school system that stretched to the college level, setting a policy followed in other large cities. Efforts to get city or state funding failed because of vehement Protestant opposition to a system that rivaled the public schools. In the west, Catholic Irish were having a large effect as well. The open west attracted many Irish immigrants. Many of these immigrants were Catholic. When they migrated west, they would form "little pockets" with other Irish immigrants. Other ways religion played a part in these towns was the fact that many were started by Irish Catholic priests. His influence over early stages Kansas City was great, and so the Catholic religion was spread to other settlers who arrived.

In other western communities, Irish priests wanted to convert the Native Americans to Catholicism. Fordham was founded in and attracted students from other regions of the United States, and even South America and the Caribbean. At first exclusively a liberal arts institution, it built a science building in , lending more legitimacy to science in the curriculum there. In addition, a three-year Bachelor of Science degree was created. It offered a rather limited intellectual curriculum, however, with the priests at Boston College prioritizing spiritual and sacramental activities over intellectual pursuits. One consequence was that Harvard Law School would not admit Boston College graduates to its law school.

Modern Jesuit leadership in American academia was not to become their hallmark across all institutions until the 20th century. The Irish became prominent in the leadership of the Catholic Church in the U. The Scots-Irish who settled in the back country of colonial America were largely Presbyterians. He was educated in the University of Glasgow and set out to organize and initiate the construction of several Presbyterian Churches throughout Maryland and Virginia. Makemie became one of the wealthiest immigrants to colonial America, owning more than 5, acres and 33 slaves. New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey, later renamed Princeton University , in in order to train ministers dedicated to their views. The college was the educational and religious capital of Scots-Irish America.

It was led by two clergymen, Samuel Wilson and Benjamin Waddle, who served as trustees, president, and professors during the first few years. During the s and s the college survived the rapid turnover of very young presidents who used the post as a stepping stone in their clerical careers, and in the late s it weathered a storm of student protest. Under the leadership of L. Shryock during the Civil War, Muskingum gradually evolved from a local and locally controlled institution to one serving the entire Muskingum Valley. It is still affiliated with the Presbyterian church.

Throughout his later life, he used the wealth gained through invention of the mechanical reaper to further the work of the church. His benefactions were responsible for the establishment in Chicago of the Presbyterian Theological Seminary of the Northwest after his death renamed the McCormick Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian Church. He also supported a series of religious publications, beginning with the Presbyterian Expositor in and ending with the Interior later called The Continent , which his widow continued until her death. Irish immigrants were the first immigrant group to America to build and organize Methodist churches.

Many of the early Irish immigrants who did so came from a German-Irish background. She is often considered to be the "Mother of American Methodism. The Irish people were the first of many to immigrate to the U. Many Irish fled their home country to escape unemployment and starvation during the Great Irish Famine. They were often arrested for intoxication, public lewdness, and petty larceny. These women made a higher wage than most by serving the middle and high-class in their own homes as nannies, cooks and cleaners.

The wages for domestic service were higher than that of factory workers and they lived in the attics of upscale mansions. By , forty percent of Irish women worked as domestic servants in New York City, making them over fifty percent of the service industry at the time. Prejudices ran deep in the north and could be seen in newspaper cartoons depicting Irish men as hot-headed, violent drunkards. Down to the end of the 19th century a large number of Irish immigrants arrived speaking Irish as their first language. This continued to be the case with immigrants from certain counties even in the 20th century.

The Irish language was first mentioned as being spoken in North America in the 17th century. Large numbers of Irish emigrated to America throughout the 18th century, bringing the language with them, and it was particularly strong in Pennsylvania. Irish speakers continued to arrive in large numbers throughout the 19th century, particularly after the Famine. There was a certain amount of literacy in Irish, as shown by the many Irish-language manuscripts which immigrants brought with them.

In An Gaodhal was founded, being the first newspaper in the world to be largely in Irish. It continued to be published into the 20th century, [] and now has an online successor in An Gael , an international literary magazine. Irish immigrants fell into three linguistic categories: monolingual Irish speakers, bilingual speakers of both Irish and English , and monolingual English speakers. According to the census, the Irish language ranks 66th out of the languages spoken today in the U. New York state has the most Irish speakers of the 50 states, and Massachusetts the highest percentage. This, the organization claimed, was a remarkable increase from only a few thousand at the time of the group's founding in Before , significant numbers of Irish Protestant immigrants became farmers; many headed to the frontier where land was cheap or free and it was easier to start a farm or herding operation.

After , most Irish Catholic immigrants went directly to the cities, mill towns , and railroad or canal construction sites on the East Coast. In the East, male Irish laborers were hired by Irish contractors to work on canals, railroads, streets, sewers and other construction projects, particularly in New York state and New England. The Irish men also worked in these labor positions in the mid-west. They worked to construct towns where there had been none previously. Kansas City was one such town, and eventually became an important cattle town and railroad center. Labor positions weren't the only occupations for Irish, though.

Some moved to New England mill towns, such as Holyoke , Lowell , Taunton , Brockton , Fall River , and Milford, Massachusetts , where owners of textile mills welcomed the new, low-wage workers. They took the jobs previously held by Yankee women known as Lowell girls. Large numbers of unemployed or very poor Irish Catholics lived in squalid conditions in the new city slums and tenements.

Single, Irish immigrant women quickly assumed jobs in high demand but for very low pay. The majority of them worked in mills, factories, and private households and were considered the bottommost group in the female job hierarchy, alongside African American women. Workers considered mill work in cotton textiles and needle trades the least desirable because of the dangerous and unpleasant conditions. Factory work was primarily a worst-case scenario for widows or daughters of families already involved in the industry. Unlike many other immigrants, Irish women preferred domestic work because it was constantly in great demand among middle- and upper-class American households. Also, the working conditions in well-off households were significantly better than those of factories or mills, and free room and board allowed domestic servants to save money or send it back to their families in Ireland.

Despite some of the benefits of domestic work, Irish women's job requirements were difficult and demeaning. Subject to their employers around the clock, Irish women cooked, cleaned, babysat and more. Because most servants lived in the home where they worked, they were separated from their communities. Most of all, the American stigma on domestic work suggested that Irish women were failures who had "about the same intelligence as that of an old grey-headed negro. Although the Irish Catholics started very low on the social status scale, by they had jobs and earnings about equal on average to their neighbors. This was largely due to their ability to speak English when they arrived. The Irish were able to rise quickly within the working world, unlike non-English speaking immigrants.

After , the Catholic Irish consistently ranked at the top of the social hierarchy, thanks especially to their high rate of college attendance, and due to that many Irish American men have risen to higher socio-economic table. In the 19th century, jobs in local government were distributed by politicians to their supporters, and with significant strength in city hall the Irish became candidates for positions in all departments, such as police departments , fire departments , public schools and other public services of major cities.

In New York City was formed by consolidating its five boroughs. That created 20, new patronage jobs. New York invested heavily in large-scale public works. This produced thousands of unskilled and semi-skilled jobs in subways, street railways, waterworks, and port facilities. Over half the Irish men employed by the city worked in utilities. Across all ethnic groups In New York City, municipal employment grew from 54, workers in to , in Matsell — , [] almost 17 percent of the police department's officers were Irish-born compared to Up to the 20th and early 21st century, Irish Catholics continue to be prominent in the law enforcement community, especially in the Northeastern United States.

Towards the end of the 19th century, schoolteaching became the most desirable occupation for the second generation of female Irish immigrants. Teaching was similar to domestic work for the first generation of Irish immigrants in that it was a popular job and one that relied on a woman's decision to remain unmarried. Irish schools prepared young single women to support themselves in a new country, which inspired them to instill the importance of education, college training, and a profession in their American-born daughters even more than in their sons. Evidence from schools in New York City illustrate the upward trend of Irish women as teachers: "as early as , twenty percent of all schoolteachers were Irish women, and Upon arrival in the United States, many Irish women became Catholic nuns and participated in the many American sisterhoods, especially those in St.

Louis in Missouri, St. Paul in Minnesota, and Troy in New York. Additionally, the women who settled in these communities were often sent back to Ireland to recruit. This kind of religious lifestyle appealed to Irish female immigrants because they outnumbered their male counterparts and the Irish cultural tendency to postpone marriage often promoted gender separation and celibacy.

Furthermore, "the Catholic church, clergy, and women religious were highly respected in Ireland," making the sisterhoods particularly attractive to Irish immigrants. Nuns provided extensive support for Irish immigrants in large cities, especially in fields such as nursing and teaching but also through orphanages, widows' homes, and housing for young, single women in domestic work. Anti-Irish sentiment was rampant in the United States during the 19th and early 20th Century. Prejudice against Irish Catholics in the U. After a year or two of local success, the Know Nothing Party vanished.

Catholics and Protestants kept their distance; intermarriage between Catholics and Protestants was uncommon, and strongly discouraged by both Protestant ministers and Catholic priests. As Dolan notes, "'Mixed marriages', as they were called, were allowed in rare cases, though warned against repeatedly, and were uncommon. Irish-American journalists "scoured the cultural landscape for evidence of insults directed at the Irish in America. While the parishes were struggling to build parochial schools, many Catholic children attended public schools.

The Protestant King James Version of the Bible was widely used in public schools, but Catholics were forbidden by their church from reading or reciting from it. In New York City, the curriculum vividly portrayed Catholics, and specifically the Irish, as villainous. The Catholic archbishop John Hughes , an immigrant to America from County Tyrone, Ireland, campaigned for public funding of Catholic education in response to the bigotry. While never successful in obtaining public money for private education, the debate with the city's Protestant elite spurred by Hughes' passionate campaign paved the way for the secularization of public education nationwide. In addition, Catholic higher education expanded during this period with colleges and universities that evolved into such institutions as Fordham University and Boston College providing alternatives to Irish who were not otherwise permitted to apply to other colleges.

Many Irish work gangs were hired by contractors to build canals, railroads, city streets and sewers across the country. In , the Knights of Equity was founded, to combat discrimination against Irish Catholics in the U. Irish Catholics were popular targets for stereotyping in the 19th century. According to historian George Potter, the media often stereotyped the Irish in America as being boss-controlled, violent both among themselves and with those of other ethnic groups , voting illegally, prone to alcoholism and dependent on street gangs that were often violent or criminal.

Potter quotes contemporary newspaper images:. You will scarcely ever find an Irishman dabbling in counterfeit money, or breaking into houses, or swindling; but if there is any fighting to be done, he is very apt to have a hand in it. The Irish had many humorists of their own, but were scathingly attacked in political cartoons, especially those in Puck magazine from the s to ; it was edited by secular Germans who opposed the Catholic Irish in politics. In addition, the cartoons of Thomas Nast were especially hostile; for example, he depicted the Irish-dominated Tammany Hall machine in New York City as a ferocious tiger.

The stereotype of the Irish as violent drunks has lasted well beyond its high point in the midth century. For example, President Richard Nixon once told advisor Charles Colson that "[t]he Irish have certain — for example, the Irish can't drink. What you always have to remember with the Irish is they get mean. Virtually every Irish I've known gets mean when he drinks. Particularly the real Irish. Discrimination against Irish Americans differed depending on gender.

For example, Irish women were sometimes stereotyped as "reckless breeders" because some American Protestants feared high Catholic birth rates would eventually result in a Protestant minority. Many native-born Americans claimed that "their incessant childbearing [would] ensure an Irish political takeover of American cities [and that] Catholicism would become the reigning faith of the hitherto Protestant nation. The difference between the Irish female "Bridget" and the Irish male "Pat" was distinct; while she was impulsive but fairly harmless, he was "always drunk, eternally fighting, lazy, and shiftless". In contrast to the view that Irish women were shiftless, slovenly and stupid like their male counterparts , girls were said to be "industrious, willing, cheerful, and honest—they work hard, and they are very strictly moral".

There were also Social Darwinian -inspired excuses for the discrimination of the Irish in America. Many Americans believed that since the Irish were Celts and not Anglo-Saxons , they were racially inferior and deserved second-class citizenship. The Irish being of inferior intelligence was a belief held by many Americans. This notion was held due to the fact that the Irish topped the charts demographically in terms of arrests and imprisonment. They also had more people confined to insane asylums and poorhouses than any other group. The racial supremacy belief that many Americans had at the time contributed significantly to Irish discrimination. From the s onwards, Irish Americans were stereotyped as terrorists and gangsters, although this stereotyping began to diminish by the end of the 19th Century.

The annual celebration of Saint Patrick's Day is a widely recognized symbol of the Irish presence in America. The largest celebration of the holiday takes place in New York, where the annual St. Patrick's Day Parade draws an average of two million people. The second-largest celebration is held in Boston. Savannah, Georgia , also holds one of the largest parades in the United States. Since the arrival of nearly two million Irish immigrants in the s, the urban Irish police officer and firefighter have become virtual icons of American popular culture.

In many large cities, the police and fire departments have been dominated by the Irish for over years, even after the ethnic Irish residential populations in those cities dwindled to small minorities. Many police and fire departments maintain large and active " Emerald Societies ", bagpipe marching groups, or other similar units demonstrating their members' pride in their Irish heritage. While these archetypal images are especially well known, Irish Americans have contributed to U. Since the late days of the film industry, celluloid representations of Irish Americans have been plentiful. The 19th-century novelist Henry James was also of partly Irish descent. While Irish Americans have been underrepresented in the plastic arts, two well-known American painters claim Irish roots.

The Irish-American contribution to politics spans the entire ideological spectrum. In the s, Irish-American writer Michael Harrington became an influential advocate of social welfare programs. Harrington's views profoundly influenced President John F. Kennedy and his brother, Robert F. Meanwhile, Irish-American political writer William F. Buckley emerged as a major intellectual force in American conservative politics in the latter half of the 20th century.

Buckley's magazine, National Review , proved an effective advocate of successful Republican candidates such as Ronald Reagan. New Orleans socialite and murderer Delphine LaLaurie , whose maiden name was Macarty, was of partial paternal Irish ancestry. Lee Harvey Oswald , the assassin of John F. Kennedy, had an Irish-born great-grandmother by the name of Mary Tonry. The wide popularity of Celtic music has fostered the rise of Irish-American bands that draw heavily on traditional Irish themes and music. The song appears on their album The Crane Wife. Flogging Molly , led by Dublin-born Dave King , are relative newcomers building upon this new tradition.

Irish immigrants brought many traditional Irish recipes with them when they emigrated to the United States, which they adapted to meet the different ingredients available to them there. Irish Americans introduced foods like soda bread and colcannon to American cuisine. Starting with the sons of the famine generation, the Irish dominated baseball and boxing, and played a major role in other sports. The Irish dominated professional baseball in the late 19th century, making up a third or more of the players and many of the top stars and managers. The professional teams played in northeastern cities with large Irish populations that provided a fan base, as well as training for ambitious youth.

Baseball for Irish kids was a shortcut to the American dream and to self-indulgent glory and fortune. By the mids these young Irish men dominated the sport and popularized a style of play that was termed heady, daring, and spontaneous Ed Delahanty personified the flamboyant, exciting spectator-favorite, the Casey-at-the-bat, Irish slugger. The handsome masculine athlete who is expected to live as large as he played.

The Philadelphia Phillies always play at home during spring training on St. Patrick's Day. The Phillies hold the distinction of being the first baseball team to wear green uniforms on St. Patricks Day. The tradition was started by Phillies pitcher Tug McGraw , who dyed his uniform green the night before March 17, John L. Sullivan — , The heavyweight boxing champion, was the first of the modern sports superstars, winning scores of contests — perhaps as many as —with a purse that reached the fabulous sum of one million dollars. The Irish brought their native games of handball , hurling and Gaelic football to America.

Along with camogie , these sports are part of the Gaelic Athletic Association. Irish Americans have been prominent in comedy. Many people of Irish descent retain a sense of their Irish heritage. Article 2 of the Constitution of Ireland formally recognizes and embraces this fact:. Irish independence from the United Kingdom encouraged the hope that descendants of Irish abroad who had retained a cultural connection and identified with Ireland would resettle there, as opposed to attracting immigrants from other cultures in other countries. One member of an Irish government of the early republic expressed his hope as follows:. I do not think [the Irish Free State ] will afford sufficient allurements to the citizens of other States The children of Irish parents born abroad are sometimes more Irish than the Irish themselves, and they would come with added experience and knowledge to our country A sense of exile, diaspora , and in the case of songs even nostalgia is a common theme.

It is occasionally used in a derogatory fashion towards Irish Americans, in an attempt to cast doubt the "Irishness" of the Irish diaspora based on nationality and citizenship rather than ethnicity. Some Irish Americans were enthusiastic supporters of Irish independence; the Fenian Brotherhood movement was based in the United States and in the late s launched several unsuccessful attacks on British-controlled Canada known as the " Fenian Raids ".

The vast majority of Irish Catholic Americans settled in large and small cities across the North, particularly railroad centers and mill towns. They became perhaps the most urbanized group in America, as few became farmers. As a percentage of the population, Massachusetts is the most Irish state, with about a fifth, Philadelphia, Boston, New York, and Chicago have historically had neighborhoods with higher percentages of Irish American residents.

Census Bureau American Community Survey in According to the U. Census, the city of Butte, Montana has the highest percentage of Irish Americans per capita of any city in the United States, with around one-quarter of the population reporting Irish ancestry. By population Boston and Philadelphia have the two largest Irish American populations in the country. There are Irish neighborhoods scattered all throughout Boston, most notably South Boston. Many of Philadelphia's Irish neighborhoods are located in the Northeast Philadelphia section of the city, particularly in the Fishtown , Mayfair , and Kensington neighborhoods, as well as the South Philadelphia section, most notably the Pennsport "Two Street" to the locals neighborhood.

There are large Irish populations in the Boston and Philadelphia metropolitan areas as well. The United States Declaration of Independence contained 56 delegate signatures. Of the signers, eight were of Irish descent. Though not a delegate but the secretary at the Congress, Charles Thomson , also Irish American, signed as well. The United States Constitution was created by a convention of 36 delegates.

Of these, at least six were of Irish ancestry. The remainder were Scotch-Irish. By the s, the Irish were already a major presence in the police departments of large cities. In New York City in , of the city's 1, policemen, were natives of Ireland. The creation of a unified police force in Philadelphia opened the door to the Irish in that city. By in Chicago, 49 of the on the police force were Irish. The Irish Catholic diaspora are very well-organized [ clarification needed ] and since have produced a majority of the leaders of the U.

Catholic Church, labor unions, the Democratic Party in larger cities, and Catholic high schools, colleges and universities. Many major cities have elected Irish American Catholic mayors. Pittsburgh mayor Bob O'Connor died in office in The Irish Protestant vote has not been studied nearly as much. Historian Timothy J. Meagher argues that by the late 19th century, most of the Protestant Irish "turned their backs on all associations with Ireland and melted into the American Protestant mainstream. In Canada, by contrast, Irish Protestants remained a political force, with many belonging to the Orange Order. It was most powerful during the late 19th century.

Al Smith and later John F. Kennedy were political heroes for American Catholics. Ronald Reagan boasted of his Irishness. Historically, Irish Catholics controlled prominent Democratic city organizations. Flynn , Robert E. Hannegan , J. In the ancient Egyptian religion, Hapi was the god of the annual flooding of the Nile.. This image shows Hopi represented as two genies, symbolically tying together upper and lower Egypt.

The god was honored for the annual floods, which brought fertility to the land and helped sustain life year after year. He is commonly depicted as an intersex person with a large belly and large breasts dressed in a loincloth and ceremonial false beard. Around half of Egypt's population lives in the Nile Delta area the green, fan-shaped region that borders the Mediterranean.

The largest city in this area is Alexandria, which has a population of over four million. The city of Rosetta can also be found in the delta region; it was here that the famous Rosetta Stone was found, its inscriptions helping modern people to understand Egyptian hieroglyphs. Lol sorry i was fortnite grinding and thought that epic coud make this a skin.

Mynameis-McChickenfartnuggetpotatoheadjuicemuseumturkeygobblegobbleummmmm on November 20, In my experience, some people like to learn information through watching videos, either as well as, or instead of through reading. That is why I include videos. Hi, I just have a quick question,why did you reference things in youtube videos when you could've just typed? I understand that you might be tired but just tell me why.

Thanks this is so helpful I am going to tell my class about this I hope you guys continue to produce these articles. There is no single agreed source of the Nile: Lake Victoria has been proposed, others say the Kagera River, others argue in favor of various tributaries that feed that Kagera. Well, this site had a lot of good facts but I am doing a school presentation, it should be in complete sentences, 6th grades facts, and also it is due on next tuesday.

The river also had a vital role in the building of the Ancient Egyptian Pyramids, as the blocks of stone used for construction had to be transported by boat. Now we know the Pyramids were made of poured natural concrete. This was discovered by a French chemist. Google geopolymers and pyramids. Another interesting fact is in very ancient times the Nile used to flow from east to west and empty into the Atlantic.

This has been shown by satellite imagery. Another interesting point is a man named Edgar Cayce stated the Nile changed course see above and the Sahara was green back in the s. Now how did he know that? Marine Biology. Electrical Engineering. Computer Science. Medical Science. Writing Tutorials.

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