Woodrow Wilson: Great Person And Role Model

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Woodrow Wilson: Great Person And Role Model



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In the end at Golgotha he has a vision of Christ telling him that in helping others. Artaban has actually seen and helped Christ himself. This story, which has been published in at least eighteen editions in the United States and England and translated into many languages, fulfilled Van Dyke's criteria for a good short story: intentional brevity; singleness of theme; an atmosphere which enhances the value of the theme; and a symbolic meaning. It also reflects the limitations that modern critics have seen in both his writing and his Christianity--gaining grace is all too easy, too comfortable, too certain.

As Bernard Baum has pointed out in his article "God of Hosts and Hostesses," Artaban doesn't really have to suffer or even encounter genuine suffering for the sake of his religion. Nor must he renounce tangibles since it is the very jewels he possesses that permit him to help others. This comfortable belief in Christian capitalism was reflected in an early sermon Van Dyke preached against communism and socialism: "For of two things you may be sure: first, if God has given you possessions in this world they are your own: second, He will certainly hold you to account for what you do with them. He would retire from that position in He had already been elected in by the Academy of Social Science Association to a group of literary men who helped create the National Institute of Arts and Letters.

Yet, just as he had incorporated literature into his preaching, now he incorporated his preaching into his literature. His next book of literary criticism was a small volume entitled The Poetry of the Psalms , which was later collected into books of essays such as Counsels by the Way and Companionable Books In it he discussed the Bible as literature, "a noble and impassioned interpretation of nature and life, uttered in language of beauty and sublimity, touched with the vivid colours of human personality, and embodied in forms of enduring literary art. Yet he went on to point out the value that is left and recommended the psalms as poetry to his readers.

Books, Literature and the People , later collected into Essays in Application , dealt with the difference between good literature and best-sellers and once again extolled the value of literature to "refresh the weary, to console the sad, to hearten up the dull and downcast, to increase man's interest in the world, his joy of living, and his sympathy with all sorts and conditions of men. Navy instead. Strongly anti-German, he saw no conflict between "deep faith and good fighting. Companionable Books, a collection of appreciative essays about Van Dyke's favourite books and authors, was published in The Man Behind the Book: Essays in Understanding followed a similar format but attacked as well as praised.

It began by considering Geoffrey Chaucer as English poetry's first luminary, Edgar Allan Poe as a minor but talented American poet, and Walt Whitman as a misunderstood poet-preacher whom Van Dyke deemed a far better writer than Poe. The next chapter attacked Edgar Lee Masters's Spoon River Anthology , both for its view of life and for its free verse, which Van Dyke called "chop-stick prose--knockkneed, splay-footed, St.

Vitus prose. He discussed each work favourably, first giving a biographical sketch of the author though he admitted he knew little about Wilder other than what the book jacket provided , followed by a summary of the plot with comments along the way explaining what he found of value in the work. Much of Van Dyke's later significant literary criticism came in the form of speeches and letters to friends, in which he attacked the new literary movements he saw around him. He opposed art for art's sake because he felt all art should serve man and make him a better, happier person. Of free verse he was a little more tolerant, though he disliked most of it because he felt it lacked substance as well as form. Yet, he acknowledged that some had substance and some had both "and may be taken as an indication of the possibility of developing new metrical arrangements in English verse, which will have a measured and perceptible rhythm of their own.

Although significant, the usefulness of population genetic formulas as provisional tools would have been a rather strange issue to form a basis for a serious controversy. After all, Wilson and Lewontin were not in disagreement about the theoretical correctness of Lewontin's criticism anyway. It is only when matters are put in the context of the larger agendas of these two scientists that it becomes clear that the decision of Wilson's to publish Sociobiology: The New Synthesis came effectively to undermine those of Lewontin. The Wilson continued to conduct himself in a collegial manner, accepting criticisms and feedback concerning the formulas, Lewontin failed to respond with any honest intellectual discourse. For him, Marxism is both a philosophical and sociopolitical program.

Thus, Lewontin is concerned with correct epistemology, methodology, and ontology which fits ideologically with Marxism ; this is because, for him, incorrect approaches prevent us from finding out the underlying "truth" about the world. Thus, reductionism is, in principle, a wrongheaded foundation for science even though he admits that it has seemingly led to steady progress in most of the natural sciences.

This is why Lewontin is interested in developing a more complex Marxist dialectical approach to science, which would capture accurately— those interaction phenomena that reductionist methodology cannot cope with Morison et al. Perhaps his model would even be so complex as to make its criticisms rare because of how few could actually understand it. Nevertheless, it is certainly not difficult to see why Dr.

Wilson's explicit choice of a reductionist approach in sociobiology on many accounts was absolute anathema to Lewontin's meta-scientific convictions in general, but even more so because Wilson chose to include human society. By invoking assumptions about human nature and society, he addressed the socio-political dimension of Lewontin's Marxism as well, adding more fuel to his ideological fire.

But just how did sociobiology then find itself into American Marxists' anti-racist agenda in a broader sense? Wilson prides himself on being a liberal thinker—the sort of person who naturally falls around the center politically. There is no overt racism in any of his publications concerning sociobiology. It is difficult to see how Wilson, by stressing population genetics, based expressly on individual variation, could be construed as a racist who emphasized group differences. This is especially the case, considering Wilson directly quotes Lewontin's anti-racism paper dealing with blood group data, adding: "There is no a priori reason for supposing that this sample of genes possesses a distribution much different from those of other, less accessible systems affecting behavior" Wilson Lewontin instead drew a connection by association.

What he said in Sociobiology: Another Biological Determinism was the following: "Sociobiology is not a racist doctrine, but any genetic determinism can and does feed other kinds, including the belief that some races are superior to others. Starting with the New York Review of Books, a stream of articles and addresses, with and without co-thinkers, Lewontin anathematized the Wilsonian program. A common Marxist scientific position is opposition to typological thinking and group averages in science and the resistance to racism in society. What they do not accept, because of ideological commitments, is the necessary counterpart to this view: the stress on individual genetic differences.

Any significant influence of the genes would be wrong within or without the group and therefore had to be discounted as an important causal factor Morison et al. No doubt, one reason for this was precisely the ease with which the "innocent layman" and academics alike might still be caught in typological thinking or feel free to apply individual differences to group differences—an epistemological error with broad social implications.

Ironically, therefore, apart from Wilson, the prime targets of Marxist attacks as a critic have been precisely such scientists who have explicitly voiced leftist-style beliefs about the social value of identifying individual genetically based talent Morison et al. But for many Marxists, typological thinking has to do with more than race differences: it applies to any assertion about inherent differences between human groups, be these based on race, sex, class, or ethnicity. Thus, the fight against typological thinking has been expanded into a battle against "biological determinism" in general. According to Marxists, the pronouncements by American academics about inherent differences between groups have always served to uphold the social status quo.

Thus, the fight against typological thinking in general means not only an attack on research explicitly intended to establish an innate basis for group differences but also an attack on any research on differences in innate ability between individuals because of the ease with which such differences might be correlated with some social category, like race, sex, ethnic group or class, and thereby be used as grounds for discriminatory social practices in the service of social power holders Lumsden; Wilson Therefore, while Dr.

Wilson's sociobiological program, for it to be amenable to the formulas of population genetics, was dependent exactly on a postulated available genetic variation in human behavioral traits, it was precisely this feature of the program that Marxists guided by Lewontin to combat racism and "biological determinism," would have to oppose. And while Wilson's scientific-cum-moral agenda motivated him to accept the existing research in human behavioral genetics at face value, a Marxist's critical agenda made him dismiss most of the research in this field as not meeting their minimum scientific standards.

One of the chief criticisms of sociobiology has been that it is not testable or is deliberately unfalsifiable. Wilson rejects the accusation that the sociobiology of genes, mind, and culture is non-testable: he has, thus, gone ahead with his program, answered his critics, and created explicit, testable mathematical models for his claims Wilson More specifically, he has coped with the criticism of the mysterious "multiplier effect," which had been under suspicion ever since the critics' first letter in the New York Review of Books.

A common feature of some negative reviews was that they regarded it as an error to use a particularistic view of mind and culture. But none of the initial reviews dealt seriously with the mathematics involved, even though the book's central claims were derived only from its mathematical models. If this was indeed the case, then criticism of other aspects of the book could be seen as reactions having to do with more extraneous things, such as e.

The problem was that no one seemed willing to deal with the mathematics in detail necessary to either substantiate or refute the authors' claims. One must not assume simply that the reviewers are set against any attempt at putting human sociobiology on a firm basis. Indeed, it is essential in this context that Dr. Maynard Smith considers human sociobiology entirely legitimate. In an interview, he said that the anthropologist Dr. Mildred Dickeman especially had convinced him about the applicability of sociobiological models to humans Morison et al.

Furthermore, the reviewers take a strong public stance against other critics like Lewontin: "Ridicule is not an alternative to criticism. These men are great examples of intellectually honest scientists who can fairly and honestly critique others' ideas, in contrast to some scientists of the Lewontinian program. Similarly, Sociobiological theories are dismissed out of hand as bad biology because genes do not act in isolation from their environment. After all, development is a multi-leveled affair because mammalian behaviors result from interactions between experience and learning and biological mechanisms. Human actions originate from socialization mechanisms that ultimately involve the mind and so forth.

Ignorance or denial of such facts is incorrectly attributed to Sociobiologists by their critics Morison et al. To the extent that such facts involve proximate mechanisms of human behavior and given that these mechanisms do not exist within the scope of sociobiology, such facts are irrelevant to the success of sociobiology. Only evolutionarily significant human social variation comes under its scope Wilson 2. Those who fail to appreciate the methodological independence of proximate and ultimate studies, Lewontin and Gould are not among them, misinterpret sociobiology as another genetic determinism. Genetic determinism has historically been a view about development in individuals, not evolution in populations.

This much is evident from the central dichotomies used to express the issue: genes versus environment, innate versus learned, nature versus nurture. Like other biologists, Sociobiologists embrace the epigenetic view of development but have no particular ax to grind concerning the precise nature of these relations. Their talk of "genes for behavior B," where B is a specific social behavior, does not imply a one: one mapping of genes onto behaviors or even of the degree of genetic control Lumsden; Wilson They are talking not about development, but about evolution, not about individuals, but evolution, not about individuals, but populations.

Though he has often been labeled a human biological determinist by his critics, Dr. Wilson has never contended that all or even most human social behavior is genetically determined. He stated in rough terms, that ''what we are talking about is that I see maybe ten percent of human behavior as genetic and ninety percent environmental. Lewontin would see it as zero percent genetic and all environmental" Wilson But even ten percent has always seemed arbitrarily high to sociobiology's critics, and evidently, it still is. In critiques, Wilson himself was presented as a genetic determinist and ideologue supporting the status quo because of his interest in establishing the central traits of a genetically controlled human nature. The hostile tone of the some were evident: Wilson's attempt to include the human species as a legitimate object of analysis in terms of the concepts of the newly developed discipline sociobiology was linked to former "biological determinist" theories which had lent themselves to abuse for political reasons, including Hitler's genocide Lumsden; Wilson Predictably, Wilson responded that the letter's co-signers had utterly distorted the content of his message and that their accusations were all false.

Critics have often stated that many of Dr. Wilson's claims about human nature do not arise from objective observation either of universals in human behavior or generalities throughout animal societies but a speculative reconstruction of human prehistory Lewontin This reconstruction includes the familiar themes of territoriality, big-game hunting with females at home minding the kids and gathering vegetables "many of the peculiar details of human sexual behavior and domestic life flow easily from this basic division of labor" Wilson , and a particular emphasis on warfare between bands and the salutary advantages of genocide.

But these arguments had arisen before and had, in fact, been strongly supported both based on historical and anthropological studies. The entire fields of History and Anthropology deal with the so-called "speculative reconstruction of human prehistory. Academics piece together all that is known into the corpus of human knowledge, and fields of study such as sociobiology use it as its basis. Sociobiology has been unfairly characterized as being a "brand-new field: which has arisen out of nowhere" Lewontin In fact, its ideas have not been spontaneously generated; It derives directly from behavioral ethology and behavioral psychology. Behavioral ethology is a science that uses evolutionary theory and especially adaptationist methods to try to understand animal behavior; this does not substantiate the claim that Sociobiologists are genetic determinists.

For example, Wilson believes that there may be particular genes "for" behavioral traits, including indoctrinationality, altruism, warfare, and habitat construction, and that these genes are subject to evolutionary forces in the traditional sense. Indeed, they argue that claiming that traits have an evolutionary origin requires that there must be genes which code "for" them; Wilson's apparent acceptance that traits may often have a vital cultural component was said to be an error, because if this is the case, then evolutionary theory tells us nothing about the origin of such traits Morison et al. Gould similarly claimed that Sociobiologists do not realize that genes only produce traits with a contribution from the environment.

In all, the criticisms of sociobiology and Dr. He became an invalid in the White House, closely monitored by his wife, who insulated him from negative news and downplayed for him the gravity of his condition. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge led the opposition to the treaty; he despised Wilson and hoped to humiliate him in the ratification battle. Republicans were outraged by Wilson's failure to discuss the war or its aftermath with them. An intensely partisan battle developed in the Senate, as Republicans opposed the treaty and Democrats largely supported it. The debate over the treaty centered around a debate over the American role in the world community in the post-war era, and Senators fell into three main groups. Most Democrats favored the treaty.

Some of these irreconcilables, such as George W. Norris , opposed the treaty for its failure to support decolonization and disarmament. Other irreconcilables, such as Hiram Johnson , feared surrendering American freedom of action to an international organization. Most sought the removal of Article X the League covenant, which purported to bind nations to defend each other against aggression. Despite the difficulty of winning ratification, Wilson consistently refused to accede to reservations, partly due to concerns about having to re-open negotiations with the other powers if reservations were added.

Cooper and Bailey suggest that Wilson's stroke in September had debilitated him from negotiating effectively with Lodge. After Russia left World War I following the Bolshevik Revolution of , the Allies sent troops there to prevent a German or Bolshevik takeover of weapons, munitions and other supplies previously shipped as aid to the pre-revolutionary government. Britain and France pressured him to intervene in order to potentially re-open a second front against Germany, and Wilson acceded to this pressure in the hope that it would help him in post-war negotiations and check Japanese influence in Siberia.

Though specifically instructed not to engage the Bolsheviks, the U. Revolutionaries in Russia resented the United States intrusion. Robert Maddox wrote, "The immediate effect of the intervention was to prolong a bloody civil war, thereby costing thousands of additional lives and wreaking enormous destruction on an already battered society. In , Wilson guided American foreign policy to "acquiesce" in the Balfour Declaration without supporting Zionism in an official way. Wilson expressed sympathy for the plight of Jews, especially in Poland and France. In May , Wilson sent a long-deferred proposal to Congress to have the U. Hovannisian states that Wilson "made all the wrong arguments" for the mandate and focused less on the immediate policy than on how history would judge his actions: "[he] wished to place it clearly on the record that the abandonment of Armenia was not his doing.

Wilson made two international trips during his presidency. He spent nearly seven months in Europe after World War I interrupted by a brief 9-day return stateside. On October 2, , Wilson suffered a serious stroke, leaving him paralyzed on his left side, and with only partial vision in the right eye. Cary Grayson. Park, a neurosurgeon who examined Wilson's medical records after his death, writes that Wilson's illness affected his personality in various ways, making him prone to "disorders of emotion, impaired impulse control, and defective judgment. For the remainder of the Wilson presidency, Edith Wilson managed the office of the president, a role she later described as a "stewardship," as she determined which communications and matters of state were important enough to bring to the attention of the bedridden president.

Wilson temporarily resumed a perfunctory attendance at cabinet meetings. By February , the president's true condition was publicly known. Many expressed qualms about Wilson's fitness for the presidency at a time when the League fight was reaching a climax, and domestic issues such as strikes, unemployment, inflation and the threat of Communism were ablaze. No one close to Wilson, including his wife, his physician, or personal assistant, was willing to take responsibility to certify, as required by the Constitution, his "inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office". In Wilson's first mid-term elections, Republicans picked up sixty seats in the House, but failed to re-take the chamber.

In the first Senate elections since the passage of the Seventeenth Amendment , Democrats retained their Senate majority. Roosevelt's Bull Moose Party, which had won a handful of Congressional seats in the election, fared poorly, while conservative Republicans also defeated several progressive Republicans. The continuing Democratic control of Congress pleased Wilson, and he publicly argued that the election represented a mandate for continued progressive reforms. Wilson, renominated without opposition, employed his campaign slogan "He kept us out of war", though he never promised unequivocally to stay out of the war. In his acceptance speech on September 2, , Wilson pointedly warned Germany that submarine warfare resulting in American deaths would not be tolerated, saying "The nation that violates these essential rights must expect to be checked and called to account by direct challenge and resistance.

It at once makes the quarrel in part our own. McCormick , a leading progressive, became chairman of the party, and Ambassador Henry Morgenthau was recalled from Turkey to manage campaign finances. As the party platform was drafted, Senator Owen of Oklahoma urged Wilson to take ideas from the Progressive Party platform of "as a means of attaching to our party progressive Republicans who are in sympathy with us in so large a degree. Wilson, in turn, included in his draft platform a plank that called for all work performed by and for the federal government to provide a minimum wage, an eight-hour day and six-day workweek, health and safety measures, the prohibition of child labour, and his own additions safeguards for female workers and a retirement program.

A former governor of New York, Hughes sought to reunify the progressive and conservative wings of the party. Republicans campaigned against Wilson's New Freedom policies, especially tariff reduction, the implementation of higher income taxes, and the Adamson Act, which they derided as "class legislation. As election day neared, both sides saw victory as a strong possibility. The election outcome was in doubt for several days and was determined by several close states. Wilson won California by 3, of almost a million votes cast, and New Hampshire by 54 votes. Hughes won Minnesota by votes out of over , In the final count, Wilson had electoral votes vs. Hughes's Wilson was able to win by picking up many votes that had gone to Teddy Roosevelt or Eugene V.

Debs in Wilson's party also maintained control of Congress, although control in the House would depend on the support of several members of the Progressive Party. Wilson involved himself in the Democratic congressional primaries, hoping to elect progressive members of Congress who would support his administration's foreign policies. Wilson succeeded in defeating several intra-party opponents, including Senator James K. Vardaman of Mississippi. Republicans ran against Wilson's foreign policy agenda, especially his proposal for the League of Nations. Despite his ill health, Wilson continued to entertain the possibility of running for a third term.

Many of Wilson's advisers tried to convince him that his health precluded another campaign, but Wilson nonetheless asked Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby to nominate him for president at the Democratic National Convention. While the convention strongly endorsed Wilson's policies, Democratic leaders were unwilling to support the ailing Wilson for a third term. The convention held several ballots over multiple days, with McAdoo and Governor James Cox of Ohio emerging as the major contenders for the nomination.

Roosevelt , the Assistant Secretary of the Navy. Many expected Theodore Roosevelt to be the Republican nominee, but his death in January left the race for the Republican nomination wide open. When the Republican National Convention met in June , none of the three major contenders were able to accrue enough support to win the nomination, and party leaders put forward various favorite son candidates. The party ultimately nominated a dark horse candidate, Senator Warren G.

Harding of Ohio. Wilson largely stayed out of the campaign, although he endorsed Cox and continued to advocate for U. Harding won a landslide victory, taking Democrats also suffered huge losses in the Congressional and gubernatorial elections of , and the Republicans increased their majorities in both houses of Congress. Wilson is generally ranked by historians and political scientists as one of the better presidents. In the view of some historians, Wilson, more than any of his predecessors, took steps towards the creation of a strong federal government that would protect ordinary citizens against the overwhelming power of large corporations.

Roosevelt and Lyndon B. However, Wilson's record on civil rights has often been attacked. Perhaps the harshest attack on Wilson's diplomacy comes from Stanford historian Thomas A. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Wilson ministry disambiguation. For a chronological guide to this subject, see Timeline of the Woodrow Wilson presidency. Warren G. Seal of the President — This article is part of a series about.

Main article: United States presidential election. See also: History of United States antitrust law. See also: Labor history of the United States. Further information: Propaganda in World War I. Further information: Woodrow Wilson and race. Further information: History of U. See also: Banana Wars. Main article: United States involvement in the Mexican Revolution. Further information: Preparedness Movement. Main article: Fourteen Points. See also: Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War. Main article: United States elections. Woodrow Wilson and the Politics of Morality. Boston: Little, Brown. Presidential Studies Quarterly. ISSN Marshall, 28th Vice President ".

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