How To Describe Fear

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How To Describe Fear



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Step 3: In column two, list ways you could reduce the likelihood of each of the worst-case scenarios from happening. What actions could you take to make those scenarios less likely to come to fruition? Consider both big actions and small actions. Step 4: In column three, list ways you could repair the damage, if this situation were to come true. What actions could you take to repair the damage, or get yourself back on track?

Step 5: Assess the impact of these worst-case scenarios on a scale of Leave no fear unexamined! On page two, give yourself space to be more open, and consider what might go right if you take action. Step 6: Write down the positive benefits of even an attempt, or partial success at taking action. Step 7: Assess the potential potential positive benefit of these successes on a scale. Page three is equally important to the others, but often forgotten in decision-making: the costs of inaction. Step 8: Make three columns on the page, and label them 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years. Projecting out past 3 years feels too intangible, so keep it in this range. Step 9: Write down the potential costs of maintaining the status quo.

Consider all consequences, including emotional, financial, and physical at each time horizon. Get detailed! After completing the Fear-Setting exercise, you should have greater clarity about the realities of taking action. The actual number of refugees who were initially deported is debated by both sides. In March , this population began a multiyear resettlement in third countries including the U. Brunei law permits positive discrimination in favor of ethnic Malays.

In the early 20th century fear of China--"Sinophobia" -- was a widespread form of xenophobia, especially in the popular media. Britain buzzed with sinophobia. Respectable middle-class magazines, tabloids and comics alike spread stories of ruthless Chinese ambitions to destroy the west. The Boxer Rebellion was a violent anti-foreign, anti-Christian , and anti-imperialist uprising in China between and It was led by a new group the "Militia United in Righteousness' known as Boxers because many of their members had practised Chinese martial arts , referred to at the time as Chinese Boxing. After China's defeat in war by Japan in , villagers in North China feared the expansion of foreign spheres of influence and resented the extension of privileges to Christian missionaries.

In a severe drought, Boxer violence spread across Shandong and the North China Plain , destroying foreign property, attacking or murdering Christian missionaries and Chinese Christians. In June , Boxer fighters, convinced they were invulnerable to foreign weapons, converged on Beijing with the slogan "Support the Qing government and exterminate the foreigners. They were besieged for 55 days by the Imperial Army of the Chinese government and the Boxers. George Makari says the Boxers, "promoted a violent hatred of all those from other lands and made no effort to distinguish the beneficient from the rapacious ones They were unabashedly xenophobic.

The allies imposed the Boxer Protocol in , with a massive annual cash indemnity to be paid by the Chinese government. The episode generated worldwide attention and denunciation of xenophobia. Historian Mary C. Wright has argued that the combination of xenophobia and nationalism had a major impact on the Chinese worldview in the first half of the 20th century. Examining bitterness and hatred toward Americans and Europeans in the decades before the Communist takeover in , she argues:.

The crude fear of the white peril that the last imperial dynasty had been able to exploit in the Boxer Rebellion of had been submerged but not overcome, and expanding special privileges of foreigners were irritants in increasingly wide spheres of Chinese life. These fears and irritations provided a mass sounding board for what otherwise might have been rather arid denunciations of imperialists. It is well to remember that both Nationalists and Communists have struck this note. In China, xenophobia against non-Chinese residents has been inflamed by the COVID pandemic in mainland China , with foreigners described as "foreign garbage" and targeted for "disposal". Since , China has come under intense international criticism for its treatment of one million Muslims the majority of them Uyghurs being held in secretive detention camps without any legal process.

In March , the Chinese government was found to be using the Uyghur minority for forced labor, inside sweat shops. According to a report published then by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute ASPI , no fewer than around 80, Uyghurs were forcibly removed from the region of Xinjiang and used for forced labor in at least twenty-seven corporate factories.

A number of discriminatory laws against Chinese Indonesians were enacted by the government of Indonesia. Moreover, political pressures in the s and s restricted the role of the Chinese Indonesian in politics, academics, and the military. As a result, they were thereafter constrained professionally to becoming entrepreneurs and professional managers in trade, manufacturing, and banking. In , Indonesia riots over higher food prices and rumors of hoarding by merchants and shopkeepers often degenerated into anti-Chinese attacks. It has festered ever since, and in the 21st century became a defining characteristic of the government of India. The Delhi riots , which left more than 50 dead and hundreds injured, [62] [63] were triggered by protests against a citizenship law seen by many critics as anti-Muslim.

Japan had successfully isolated itself from the outside world, allowing anti-foreign sentiments and myths to multiply unchecked by actual observation. New Zealand , which is 30 times smaller than Japan, accepted 1, refugees in Just persons were recognized as refugees by Japan from , when Japan ratified the U. Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees , to Sharon Yoon and Yuki Asahina argue that Zaitokukai a right-wing organization, succeeded in framing Korean minorities as undeserving recipients of Japanese welfare benefits.

Evan as Zaitokukai declined, the perceptions of a Korean internal threat powerfully influences public fears. The racial tension between the dominant poor Malay Muslims and the minority wealthier Chinese has long characterized Malaysia. It was a major factor in the separation of Singapore in to become an independent, primarily Chinese nation. Amy L. Freedman points to the electoral system, the centrality of ethnic parties, gerrymandering, and systematic discrimination against the Chinese in education and jobs as critical factors in xenophobia.

Recently the goal of creating a more inclusive national identity has been emphasized. In Malaysia xenophobia occurs regardless of race. Most of xenophobia is towards foreign labourers, who normally came from Indonesia, Bangladesh [80] and Africa. Xenophobia in South Korea has been recognized by scholars and the United Nations as a widespread social problem.

After , xenophobia became increasingly prevalent in the widely used social media. Jiyeon Kang reports a common pattern scapegoating dark-skinned migrants by gender, race and class. They are presented as accomplices and beneficiaries of the elite coalition allegedly taking traditional rights away from South Korean male citizens. In a — World Values Survey , There are no laws within the Kingdom of Thailand which criminalize racial discrimination and the use of racist cliches.

Unlike neighboring nations which were colonized , Thailand's history as an uncolonized state further shaped its existing laws. The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood leader Mohammed Mahdi Akef has denounced what he called "the myth of the Holocaust " in defense of the former-Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad 's denial of it. Jordan does not allow entry to Jews who have visible signs of Judaism or possess personal religious items. The Jordanian ambassador to Israel replied to a complaint by a religious Jew who was denied entry by stating that security concerns required that travelers who are entering the Hashemite Kingdom should not do so with prayer shawls Tallit and phylacteries Tefillin.

The group had taken a ferry from Sinai , Egypt because it understood that Jordanian authorities were making it hard for visible Jews to enter their country from Israel. According to the U. State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for Israel and the Occupied Territories, the Israeli government had done "little to reduce institutional, legal, and societal discrimination against the country's Arab citizens. State Department Country Report stated that Israeli law prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, and the Israeli government effectively enforced these prohibitions.

One analysis of the report summarized it thus: "Over two-thirds of Israeli teens believe that Arabs are less intelligent, uncultured and violent. Al-Manar officials denied broadcasting any antisemitic incitement and they also stated that their group's position is anti-Israeli, not antisemitic. However, Hezbollah has directed strong rhetoric against both Israel and Jews, and it has cooperated in publishing and distributing outright antisemitic literature. The government of Lebanon has not criticized Hezbollah's continued broadcast of antisemitic material on television. There are also substantial accounts [] of abuses against migrant domestic workers in Lebanon , notably from Ethiopia, Bangladesh, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sudan, and other countries in Asia and Africa, exacerbated by the Kafala system , or "sponsorship system".

Various Palestinian organizations and individuals have been regularly accused of being antisemitic. Howard Gutman believes that much of Muslim hatred of Jews stems from the ongoing Arab—Israeli conflict and that peace would significantly reduce antisemitism. It is no longer a secret that the Zionists were behind the Nazis' murder of many Jews, and agreed to it, with the aim of intimidating them and forcing them to immigrate to Palestine. In August , Hamas refused to allow Palestinian children to learn about the Holocaust, which it called "a lie invented by the Zionists" and referred to Holocaust education as a " war crime ".

Racism in Saudi Arabia is practiced against labor workers who are foreigners, mostly from developing countries. Asian maids who work in the country have been victims of racism and other forms of discrimination, [] [] [] [] foreign workers have been raped, exploited, under- or unpaid, physically abused, [] overworked and locked in their places of employment. The international organisation Human Rights Watch HRW describes these conditions as "near- slavery " and attributes them to "deeply rooted gender, religious, and racial discrimination".

There were several cases of antisemitism in Saudi Arabia and it is common within the country's religious circles. The Saudi Arabian media often attacks Jews in books, in news articles, in its Mosques and with what some describe as antisemitic satire. Saudi Arabian government officials and state religious leaders often promote the idea that Jews are conspiring to take over the entire world; as proof of their claims they publish and frequently cite The Protocols of the Elders of Zion as factual. A study that ran from to has mapped the countries in Europe with the highest incidents of racial bias towards black people, based on data from , white Europeans. It used the Implicit-association test a reaction-based psychological test designed to measure implicit racial bias.

The extent of negative attitudes towards Muslims varies across different parts of Europe. There have been reports of hate crimes targeting Muslims across Europe. There were recorded well over a hundred antisemitic attacks in Belgium in The perpetrators were usually young males of immigrant background from the Middle East. In , the Belgian city of Antwerp , often referred to as Europe 's last shtetl , experienced a surge in antisemitic violence. Bloeme Evers-Emden , an Amsterdam resident and Auschwitz survivor, was quoted in the newspaper Aftenposten in "The antisemitism now is even worse than before the Holocaust.

The antisemitism has become more violent. Now they are threatening to kill us. In , France experienced rising levels of Islamic antisemitism and acts that were publicized around the world. Reports related to the tensions between the children of North African Muslim immigrants and North African Jewish children. In , over 7, members of the community petitioned for asylum in the United States, citing antisemitism in France. In the first half of , an estimated recorded acts of antisemitism took place in France, more than the whole of He also announced that he would appoint a special coordinator for fighting racism and antisemitism. The period after Germany's loss of World War I led to the increased espousal of anti-Semitism and other forms of racism in the country's political discourse, for example, emotions which were initially expressed by members of the right-wing Freikorps finally culminated in the ascent of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party in The Nazi Party's racial policy and the Nuremberg Race Laws against Jews and other non- Aryans represented the most explicit racist policies in twentieth century Europe.

These laws deprived all Jews including half-Jews and quarter-Jews and all other non-Aryans of German citizenship. The official title of Jews became "subjects of the state". At first, the Nuremberg Race Laws only forbade racially mixed sexual relationships and marriages between Aryans and Jews but later they were extended to " Gypsies , Negroes or their bastard offspring". Nazi Germany's Directive No. Poles, Jews and gypsies are on the same inferior level.

After the s the steady arrival of Turkish workers led to xenophobia. Anti-refugee sentiment has been strong in Hungary, [] [] and Hungarian authorities along the border have been accused of detaining migrants under harsh conditions [] with some reported instances of beatings and other violence from the guards. As in other European countries, the Romani people faced disadvantages, including unequal treatment, discrimination, segregation and harassment. Negative stereotypes are often linked to Romani unemployment and reliance on state benefits. According to the Hungarian curia supreme court , these murders were motivated by anti-Romani sentiment and sentenced the perpetrators to life imprisonment.

A new party emerged in the s, Lega Nord. According to Gilda Zazzara, it started with identity-based claims and secessionist proposals for the North to break away from Southern Italy. It shifted to xenophobia and the demand that job priority be accorded to native Italian workers. Anti-Roma sentiment in Italy takes the form of hostility, prejudice, discrimination or racism directed at Romani people. There's no reliable data for the total number of Roma people living in Italy, but estimates put it between , and , Many national and local political leaders engaged in rhetoric during and that maintained that the extraordinary rise in crime at the time was mainly a result of uncontrolled immigration of people of Roma origin from recent European Union member state Romania.

The mayors of Rome and Milan signed "Security Pacts" in May that "envisaged the forced eviction of up to 10, Romani people. In the early the Dutch right-wing Party for Freedom established an anti-Slavic predominantly anti-Polish and anti-Romani website, where native Dutch people could air their frustration about losing their job because of cheaper workers from Poland , Bulgaria , Romania and other non-Germanic Central and Eastern European countries. This led to commentaries involving hate speech and other racial prejudice mainly against Poles and Roma, but also aimed at other Central and Eastern European ethnic groups.

In the Netherlands , antisemitic incidents, from verbal abuse to violence, are reported, allegedly connected with Islamic youth, mostly boys from Moroccan descent. A phrase made popular during football matches against the so-called Jewish football club Ajax has been adopted by Muslim youth and is frequently heard at pro-Palestinian demonstrations: "Hamas, Hamas, Jews to the gas! In , the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation after one year of research, revealed that antisemitism was common among Norwegian Muslims. Teachers at schools with large shares of Muslims revealed that Muslim students often "praise or admire Adolf Hitler for his killing of Jews", that "Jew-hate is legitimate within vast groups of Muslim students," and "Muslims laugh or command [teachers] to stop when trying to educate about the Holocaust.

One Jewish father also told that his child after school had been taken by a Muslim mob though managed to escape , reportedly "to be taken out to the forest and hanged because he was a Jew". Lien Verpoest explores the era of the Napoleonic wars to identify the formation of conservative ideas ranging from traditionalism to ardent patriotism and xenophobia. In the late 19th century, especially after nationalistic uprisings in Poland in the s, the government displayed xenophobia in its hostility toward ethnic minorities that did not speak Russian. The decision was to reduce the use of other languages, and insist on Russification. By the beginning of the 20th century, most European Jews lived in the so-called Pale of Settlement , the Western frontier of the Russian Empire consisting generally of the modern-day countries of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and neighboring regions.

Many pogroms accompanied the Revolution of and the ensuing Russian Civil War , an estimated 70, to , civilian Jews were killed in the atrocities throughout the former Russian Empire ; the number of Jewish orphans exceeded , During the civil war era both the Bolsheviks and the Whites employed nationalism and xenophobia as weapons to delegitimise the opposition. After World War II official national policy was to bring in students from Communist countries in East Europe and Asia for advanced training in Communist leadership roles. These students encountered severe xenophobia on campus. They survived by sticking together, but developed a hostility toward the Soviet leadership. In the s, " skinheads " were especially visible in attacking anything foreign.

Using surveys from , , and , Hannah S. Chapman, et al. Muscovites especially became more xenophobic. It is widespread among ethnic Russians and is increasing. Some of them are hostile to Israel because they support the weak side, which they perceive the Palestinians to be. Israel's Antisemitism Report for stated that "A striking exception in the trend of decrease in antisemitic incidents in Eastern Europe was Ukraine, where the number of recorded antisemitic attacks was doubled from last year and surpassed the tally for all the incidents reported throughout the entire region combined.

Derek Wilson notes that xenophobia was a factor in anti-alien riots in London in , protesting the prominence of foreigners in London wool and cloth businesses. Bernard Porter argues that Anti-black and anti-Indian themes waxed strong in the late 19th century, not only because of racism but also because of rebellious episodes in the British Empire in Africa and India, empire. The extent and the targets of racist attitudes in the United Kingdom have varied over time. It has resulted in cases of discrimination, riots and racially motivated murders.

Racism was mitigated by the attitudes and norms of the British class system during the 19th century, in which race mattered less than social distinction: a black African tribal chief was unquestionably superior to a white English costermonger. Laws were passed in the s that specifically prohibited racial segregation. Racism has been observed as having a correlation between factors such as levels of unemployment and immigration in an area. Some studies suggest Brexit led to a rise in racist incidents, where locals became hostile to foreigners.

Studies published in and claimed racism was on the rise in the UK, with more than one third of those polled admitting they were racially prejudiced. Sectarianism between Ulster Protestants and Irish Catholics in Northern Ireland has been called a form of racism by some international bodies. In recent years the intense debates over Brexit has increased xenophobia in London, especially against French living in the city. In the past recent years, Ivory Coast has seen a resurgence in ethnic tribal hatred and religious intolerance.

In this paradigm, extinction occurs when the animal is re-exposed to the conditioned cue or conditioned context in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus. As the animal learns that the cue or context no longer predicts the coming of the unconditioned stimulus, conditioned responding gradually decreases, or extinguishes. In the operant conditioning paradigm, extinction refers to the process of no longer providing the reinforcement that has been maintaining a behavior. Operant extinction differs from forgetting in that the latter refers to a decrease in the strength of a behavior over time when it has not been emitted. In his autobiography, B. Skinner noted how he accidentally discovered the extinction of an operant response due to the malfunction of his laboratory equipment:.

My first extinction curve showed up by accident. A rat was pressing the lever in an experiment on satiation when the pellet dispenser jammed. I was not there at the time, and when I returned I found a beautiful curve. The rat had gone on pressing although no pellets were received. The change was more orderly than the extinction of a salivary reflex in Pavlov's setting, and I was terribly excited. It was a Friday afternoon and there was no one in the laboratory who I could tell. All that weekend I crossed streets with particular care and avoided all unnecessary risks to protect my discovery from loss through my accidental death.

When an S-delta is present, the reinforcing consequence which characteristically follows a behavior does not occur. This is the opposite of a discriminative stimulus which is a signal that reinforcement will occur. For instance, in an operant chamber , if food pellets are only delivered when a response is emitted in the presence of a green light, the green light is a discriminative stimulus. If when a red light is present food will not be delivered, then the red light is an extinction stimulus food here is used as an example of a reinforcer. However, some make the distinction between extinction stimuli and "S-Delta" due to the behavior not having a reinforcement history, i.

This still would be considered as S-Delta. In order for extinction to work effectively, it must be done consistently. Extinction is considered successful when responding in the presence of an extinction stimulus a red light or a teacher not giving a bad student attention, for instance is zero. When a behavior reappears again after it has gone through extinction, it is called resurgence.

While extinction, when implemented consistently over time, results in the eventual decrease of the undesired behavior, in the short term the subject might exhibit what is called an extinction burst. An extinction burst will often occur when the extinction procedure has just begun. This usually consists of a sudden and temporary increase in the response's frequency, followed by the eventual decline and extinction of the behavior targeted for elimination.

Novel behavior, or emotional responses or aggressive behavior, may also occur. Take, as an example, a pigeon that has been reinforced to peck an electronic button. During its training history, every time the pigeon pecked the button, it will have received a small amount of bird seed as a reinforcer. So, whenever the bird is hungry, it will peck the button to receive food. However, if the button were to be turned off, the hungry pigeon will first try pecking the button just as it has in the past. When no food is forthcoming, the bird will likely try again After a period of frantic activity, in which their pecking behavior yields no result, the pigeon's pecking will decrease in frequency.

Although not explained by reinforcement theory , the extinction burst can be understood using control theory. In perceptual control theory , the degree of output involved in any action is proportional to the discrepancy between the reference value desired rate of reward in the operant paradigm and the current input.

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