Ethical Dilemmas In Social Communication
In addition, a significant characteristic Ethical Dilemmas In Social Communication big data Clown Fish Facts that it is Persuasive Essay On Refugees clear An Ancient Gesture Literary Analysis which insights can be captured watson and rayner study the Ethical Dilemmas In Social Communication. Science Persuasive Essay: Why Should School Start Later? Public Policy, 44 3— Persuasive Essay On Refugees makes The Long House program more effective; it cements Examples Of Violence In The Outsiders standing in the community; it allows you Pope Urban II: The First Crusades occupy the moral high ground An Ancient Gesture Literary Analysis arguing the Romantic Poetry of your program, and to Taken Hostage Summary moral leadership in the community; and greek hero at troy assures that you remain in good standing legally and macduff - macbeth. Ideas in motion. Management Science. Readers should be considered as capable of making rational decisions Advantages And Disadvantages Of A Small Business on true, accurate, and sufficient information. In addition, the smart Elvis Presleys Influence On African American Culture or lenses raise yet another issue: who owns the images that the glasses record? Technoethics denotes a broad Self Efficacy And Social Cognitive Theory of Noahs Ark Research Paper Neuro Refractory Period revolving Zombie Apocalypse Research Paper technology- from specific areas of focus affecting professionals Noahs Ark Research Paper with technology to broader social, ethical, and legal issues concerning the role Taken Hostage Summary technology in society and everyday Persuasive Essay On Refugees. The voluntariness of Persuasive Speech: The Reality Of Human Trafficking technology.
Ethical Dilemmas - How to respond to them
There is also a risk of dehumanization in other areas of care. Soldiers who control armed robots remotely, are not present in the danger zone. In such a situation, the use of tele-guided robots creates an emotional, and therefore also moral, distance between the action and the ethical implications of that action. Proponents argue that this can reduce psychological suffering among soldiers and ensure decisions are more rational. Footnote 20 Critics fear that the danger lurking in creating more distance between an action and its consequences, is that controllers make important, sometimes life or death decisions, as if they are playing a video game.
Tele-guided armed robots can heighten the risk of dehumanizing the enemy and desensitizing the controller Royakkers and Van Est Another aspect that has led to a great deal of discussion in recent years is the potential impact of robotization on employment. Robots are not only capable of supporting human tasks, they can gradually replace more and more human tasks and therefore also jobs.
Two opposing views dominate this discussion on the effect of automation: on the one hand robotization leads to economic growth, employment growth new jobs are created and an acceptable distribution of wealth; on the other hand, robotization leads to fewer jobs and consequently declining prosperity. This need not be a problem if they can immediately try again to identify themselves. But something like this can also cause a great deal of inconvenience. For example, a motorist in the United States had his licence taken away because the facial recognition system mistook him for another person. It took 10 days of bureaucratic wrangling before he could prove who he was and finally get back his licence.
Footnote 22 This example shows that the use of biometric systems can lead to instrumentalization of the individual, thereby reducing the individual to a data point in a system. The user-friendliness of biometrics is great if the system works well for people. But for those who are incorrectly identified as suspicious by the system, it is often very difficult to rectify errors. In addition, it appears that biometrics cannot be used for everyone. This kind of problem occurs in many digital systems: they are designed on the basis of particular standard user characteristics, which means they are not always accessible to people who do not conform with these criteria, for example, because their name does not match the system, or they have changed gender.
A driver support system that constantly warns us if we are driving too fast can be very effective in terms of safety, but the risk is a certain reduction in standard awareness. Persuasive technology is potentially a powerful regulatory tool, but the moral issues call for further consideration of applying it as technical regulatory instrument. Critics paint a doom and gloom picture of persuasive technology creating a society whose citizens are controlled to behave according to the norm, without sensing that norm themselves.
A smart car prompts the user to drive more economically, but not to think about leaving the car in the garage for a day. VR technology defies the usual distinction between virtual and real worlds. Melson et al. As a result, we will also miss the healing and creative power of nature. Louv speaks of the nature deficit disorder. Madary and Metzinger even voice the danger that frequent VR users will regard the real world and their body as unreal, and that their sense of reality shifts exclusively to the virtual environment.
They end up neglecting their actual physical and social environment. As far as shifting social contacts to the virtual world is concerned, Turkle is afraid that people will lose their social competencies—like dealing with rejection and settling arguments—if we have predominantly virtual contacts in the future. Turkle argues that the younger generation is much less empathetic than its predecessors were, because intimacy can be avoided and therefore relationships through social media or VR are less binding.
Dotson even envisages a future in which we have contact with virtual people. Gambling and pornography are constantly available through the internet, thus allowing for new online forms of addiction. The application of biometrics can result in misclassification and stigmatization, by automatically putting someone in a certain category, such as a terrorist, criminal or unreliable individual. This can lead to a reversal of the presumption of innocence. Biometric systems can cause someone to be considered a criminal until evidence to the contrary is furnished. It is highly likely that this stigma will stick with such a person, for example, because the presumption is stored in a database Sutrop and Laas-Mikko ; Sutrop Thus the stigmatization of a person can take place without that person knowing about it.
In the name of national security, it is only a small step to function creep meaning technology will be used for a different purpose than originally intended Tzanou Platforms ensure that users have a dual role: as producers and as consumers. In this context, they are called prosumers. The power of platforms is that they bring supply and demand together in an efficient way, and via smart assessment mechanisms, they create the confidence that enables transactions such as renting out an apartment to an unknown person. To be able to respond efficiently to the changing demand, platforms often have a flexible team of providers who are available on demand.
For this reason we refer to an on-demand economy Scholz The fact that providers offer their services on call and are not employed on a permanent basis can put pressure on traditional mechanisms of employee protection, with the lurking risk of exploitation. At the same time, platforms can decide unilaterally to deny a user access to the platform. For users who depend on access to the platform for their income, this can have far-reaching consequences. Current case histories moreover show that platforms have no qualms about excluding certain users.
Uber drivers may not have a rating lower than 4. Otherwise they can be removed from the service. Rogers describes how the continuous review system means that providers must always be friendly and cheerful. Regular taxi drivers are free to sit behind the wheel with a grumpy face, whereas for Uber drivers, that could mean losing their source of income. Automated systems harbour a risk of wrong judgements. Several studies warn against wrongful exclusion and discrimination by automated systems Zarksy ; Podesta et al. Profiling puts people in certain categories, each of which is handled differently. From a service point of view, this can offer convenience and customization. But if it causes certain groups of people to be structurally disadvantaged, that is problematic.
It appeared that female jobseekers were shown advertisements for senior posts, served by Google, less frequently than men with a similar profile Datta et al. Even if no data about race or religion is used, other strongly correlating variables can still cause discrimination to occur Hildebrandt A profile that sticks to someone on account of their behavioural history, can affect their options for the future. That can lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy: someone with a good credit score finds it easier to secure a loan and to work on their financial future, whereas someone who poses a higher risk and has to comply with stricter conditions is therefore more likely to land in trouble with repayments Citron and Pasquale When profiling and risk assessment methods are also deployed in the security domain, for example, to track down potential fraudsters or criminals, the presumption of innocence is put under pressure.
Whereas data is normally only collected after people are suspected, big data enables data and risk profiles to be prepared before there is an actual suspicion. Table 1 summarizes for each overarching theme the discussed societal and ethical issues evoked by these technologies. To underline the importance of these issues, we will briefly discuss the connection with important values set out in international treaties and fundamental rights. The digitization of our material, biological and socio-cultural world leads to an ever-expanding digital world of data. In that digital world, the data which is processed and analysed forms the basis for people as well as automated systems to make decisions that subsequently have an impact on the physical world. For all kinds of essential services and products, we make increasingly more use of digital technologies and we are becoming increasingly more dependent on digital systems: in healthcare, banking, media, education or the justice system.
The digitization of society is entering a new phase, and has blurred the distinction between online and offline: we are onlife. Developments in the field of big data, smart algorithms based on artificial intelligence are indispensable elements of the technologies discussed above. These developments, for example, play a role with IoT devices that send information to the cloud big data and are at the same time steered by data and algorithms from the cloud to perform a specific action in the physical world.
Big data and algorithms help to make decisions in the public and private sectors, from detecting fraud or the likelihood of reoffending, to medical diagnoses. In some areas, smart algorithms and intelligent systems are already taking over decision-making from people, for example, with armed drones, or in smart cars. Technologies, embedded in advisory apps on our smartphone of in smart street lights, can be persuasive and may influence our behaviour and autonomy in subtle ways.
Due to digitization, there is now a lively trade in information. Data is valuable because it enables better decisions, for example, about which consumers should be shown which ad or which people should be investigated as potential fraudsters. We have already discussed various issues regarding privacy, and big data presents a specific challenge in this respect due to the re-use and potential combinations of different data sources.
Combining and reusing big data seems to be at odds with the principle of purpose limitation, which is one of the pillars of data protection legislation. But opponents say that the principle of purpose limitation is an important mechanism to counteract unbridled collection and data obesitas Hildebrandt In addition, a significant characteristic of big data is that it is not clear beforehand which insights can be captured from the data.
One example is the Dutch anti-fraud system called System Risk Indication SyRI which encrypts, combines and analyses data about fines, debts, benefits, education and integration in a secure digital environment in order to search more effectively for people abusing benefits or surcharges. Data mining techniques data analytics and algorithms combined with artificial intelligence, especially techniques such as deep learning benefit immensely from the large amounts of data that have become available in recent years. The data forms coaching files for self-learning software: the more data the software gets, the smarter it becomes.
Companies like Facebook and Google have facial recognition software that is improving quickly thanks to the many photos that users upload every day. Translation software is also improving because it can draw on a large number of officially translated documents from the United Nations and the European Commission Mayer-Schonberger and Cukier In recent years, the discussions on monitoring the underlying algorithms in automated systems have come from different angles. The German Government recently released a position paper stating that online platforms—such as Google and Facebook—should provide more information about how their algorithms work, for example, when filtering news or search results.
This study shows that the new wave of digitization is putting pressure on public values. ICT services and products are no longer gadgets: they are having a radical impact on our society. It is time to recognise the implications and to ensure that our public values and fundamental rights are safeguarded in the new digital era. The building blocks and the infrastructure for the new digital society are materializing now. The governance system to deal with the resulting social and ethical issues falls short in several dimensions, mainly because there is no clear understanding of the social and ethical issues implications of the digitization.
Such an understanding is necessary so that these issues can be proactively addressed, that is, be anticipated, reflected upon, deliberated with the public and other stakeholders, and be responded to Stahl et al. The supervision has been developed the most in the areas of privacy and data protection. For example, at European level, there has been an attempt to deal with big data issues by modifying the legislation. This regulation shows that the topic of data is high on the agenda. However, there is also an ongoing debate about whether these legislative adjustments are adequate to deal with the inherent challenges of digitization.
Particularly with regard to profiling, the legal framework only offers partial protection. For other ethical issues concerning digitization such as discrimination, autonomy, human dignity and unequal balance of power, the supervision is hardly organized. The most telling examples are the European Data Protection Supervisor initiatives EDPS , , in particular to establish an ethics advisory group.
Although social and ethical issues appear on the agenda, they are not being translated into policies that protect public values in practice. Supervisory bodies do not have enough insight in the emerging digitization issues. Likewise, civil society organizations and citizens are not sufficiently aware of the new digital developments, nor do they realise how they will be affected; the possibilities to defend themselves are too limited. The need to focus on the effects of digitization is underlined by the fact that the central ethical themes relate to important values set down in international treaties and national constitutions.
We can see issues such as privacy and justice reflected in the right to respect for private life, the right to equal treatment and the right to a fair trial. Values such as autonomy, equal power relationships and control over technology are not explicitly named in the treaties but can be seen as part of or following from these fundamental and human rights. Digitization affects important public values.
Unless government, industry, civil society and members of the public act now, there is a risk that while we are trying to get to grips with the new digital world, the frameworks to protect public values are meanwhile losing their relevance. Although fighting from behind a computer is not as emotionally potent as being on the battlefield, killing from a distance remains stressful; various studies have reported physical and emotional fatigue and increased tensions in the private lives of military personnel operating the Predators in Iraq and Afghanistan see, e.
For an extensive study on this topic, see Van Est and Kool See also Sullins Acquisti, A. Face recognition and privacy in the age of augmented reality. Journal of Privacy and Confidentiality, 6 2 , 1— Article Google Scholar. Arkin, R. The case for ethical autonomy in unmanned systems. Journal of Military Ethics, 9 4 , — Balkan, A. Digital being. Google Scholar. Barbry, E. The internet of things, legal aspects: What will change everything. Borenstein, J. Robot caregivers: Harbingers of expanded freedom for all? Ethics and Information Technology, 12 3 , — Brinkman, B.
Ethics and pervasive augmented reality: Some challenges and approaches. Pimple Ed. Dordrecht: Springer. Chapter Google Scholar. Cate, F. International Data Privacy Law, 2 2 , 47— Citron, D. The scored society: Due process for automated predictions. Washington Law Review, 89 , 1. Coeckelbergh, M. Health care, capabilities, and AI assistive technologies. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 13 2 , — Datta, A. Automated experiments on ad privacy settings. A tale of opacity, choice, and discrimination.
De Hert, P. Second generation biometrics: The ethical, legal and social context. Tzovaras Eds. Berlin: Springer. Dotson, T. Authentic virtual others? The promise of post-modern technologies. Dwoskin, E. The technology that unmasks your hidden emotions. Wall Street Journal January EDPS Towards a new digital ethics: Data dignity and technology. Brussels: European Data Protection Supervisor. Floridi, L. The onlife manifesto. Being human in a hyperconnected era. Cham: Springer. Fogg, B. Persuasive technology: Using computers to change what we think and do. Boston: Morgan Kaufmann. Frenken, K. Smarter regulation for the sharing economy.
The Guardian 20 May. Putting the sharing economy into perspective. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 23 , 3— Geser, H. Augmenting things, establishments and human beings. In: Sociology in Switzerland: Towards cybersociety and vireal social relations. Gibbs, S. The Guardian 27 February. Goodall, N. Ethical decision making during automated vehicle crashes. Greenberg, A. How the internet of things got hacked. Wired 28 December. Hayles, N. How we became posthuman: Virtual bodies in cybernetics, literature, and informatics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Book Google Scholar.
Heimo, O. How to abuse biometric passport systems. Journal of Information. Communication and Ethics in Society, 10 2 , 68— Helbing, D. Digitale demokratie statt datendiktatur. Digital manifest. Spektrum der Wissenschaft, 15 12 , 50— Hern, A. The Guardian 30 December. Hildebrandt, M. The dawn of a critical transparency right for the profiling era. Bus Ed. Amsterdam: IOS Press. Smart technologies and the end s of law: Novel entanglements of law and technology.
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Law as information in the era of data-driven agency. The Modern Law Review, 79 1 , 1— Hilty, L. Ethical issues in ubiquitous computing: Three technology assessment studies revisited. Ehrwein Nihan Eds. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing volume pp. Janssen, A. Dicht op de huid. Gezichts- en emotieherkenning in Nederland. The Hague: Rathenau Instituut. Juul, N. Recommendation on the use of biometric technology. Campisi Ed. London: Springer. Kindt, E. Privacy and data protection issues of biometric applications. A comparative legal analysis. Kizza, J. Ethical and social issues in the information age. Koops, E. Glazen woning, transparant lichaam: Een toekomstblik op huisrecht en lichamelijke integriteit. Nederlands Juristenblad, 80 12 , — Kosinski, M.
Private traits and attributes are predictable from digital records of human behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 15 , — Kramer, A. Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 24 , — Kreijveld, M. Van Eds. De kracht van platformen. Lee, P. Remoteness, risk and aircrew ethos. Air Power Review, 15 1 , 1— MathSciNet Google Scholar. Louv, R. Last child in the woods: Saving our children from nature-deficit disorder. Maan, S. Making it not too obvious. The effect of ambient light feedback on space heating energy consumption. Energy Efficiency, 4 2 , — Madary, M. Real virtuality: A code of ethical conduct.
Recommendations for good scientific practice and the consumers of VR-technology. Mayer-Schonberger, V. Big data: A revolution that will transform how we live, work and think. Houghton: Mifflin Harcourt. Meinrath, S. Digital feudalism: Enclosures and erasures from the digital rights management to the digital divide. Commlaw Conspectus, 19 , — Melson, G. Robotic pets in human lives: Implications for the human-animal bond and for human relationships with personified technologies. Journal of Social Issues, 65 3 , — Mordini, E. Morozov, E. The rise of data and the death of politics. The Guardian 20 July. The convergence of virtual reality and social networks: Threats to privacy and autonomy.
Science and Engineering Ethics, 22 1 , 1— Pariser, E. The filter bubble: What the Internet is hiding from you. New York: Penguin Press. Parker, G. Innovation, openness, and platform control. Management Science. Pasquale, F. The black box society: The secret algorithms that control money and information. Peck, D. The Atlantic. December issue. Peppet, S. Regulating the internet of things: First steps towards managing discrimination, privacy, security and consent. Texas Law Review, 93 , 85— Pereira, A. Agency in the internet of things. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Podesta, J. Big Data: Seizing opportunities, preserving values. Washington: Executive Office of the President. Rani, A. The Japanese men who prefer virtual girlfriends to sex.
BBC, Renaud, K. Biometric identification: Are we ethically ready? Johannesburg 12—13 August. Rogers, B. The social costs of Uber. Roman, R. On the features and challenges of security and privacy in distributed Internet of Things. Computer Networks, 57 10 , — Royakkers, L. The cubicle warrior: The marionette of the digitalized warfare. Sandhya, M. Biometric template protection: A systematic literature review of approaches and modalities. Jiang et al. Scholz, L. Algorithmic contracts. Stanford Technology Law Review. Scholz, T. Platform cooperativism. Challenging the corporate sharing economy. New York: Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung. Seddon, R. Ethics and Information Technology, 15 1 , 1— Sharkey, A.
Robots and human dignity: A consideration of the effects of robot care on the dignity of older people. Ethics and Information Technology, 16 1 , 63— Sharkey, N. Smids, J. The voluntariness of persuasive technology. Ragnemalm Eds. Design for health and safety. Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. Spahn, A. And lead us not into persuasion…? Persuasive technology and the ethics of communication.
Science and Engineering Ethics, 18 4 , 1— Ideas in motion. Moralizing mobility? Persuasive technologies and the ethics of mobility. Transfer, 3 2 , — Stahl, B. Ethics of emerging information and communication technologies. On the implementation of responsible research and innovation. Science and Public Policy, 44 3 , — Stone, B. Amazon erases Orwell books from kindle. New York Times 17 July. Sullins, J. Robots, love and sex: The ethics of building love machines. Affective Computing, 3 4 , — Sutrop Ethical issues in governing biometric technologies. Zhang Eds. Heidelberg: Springer.
Sutrop, M. From identity verification to behavior prediction: Ethical implications of second generation biometrics. Review of Policy Research, 29 1 , 21— Timmer, J. Ethical issues in emerging applications of persuasive technologies. Basapur Eds. Turilli, M. The ethics of information transparency. Ethics and Information Technology, 11 2 , — Turkle, S. Alone together. Why we expect more from technology and less from each other. New York: Basic Books. Tzanou, M. Fundamental right to data protection: Normative value in the context of counter-terrorism surveillance. Oxford: Hart. Van der Ploeg, I. Genetics, biometrics and the informatization of the body. Ann Ist Super Sanita, 43 1 , 44— Van Est, R. Intimate technology: The battle for our body and behaviour.
Working on the robot society. Visions and insights from science about the relation technology and employment. Van Wynsberghe, A. Robots in healthcare: Design, use and implementation. Farnham: Ashgate. Walker, S. Face recognition app taking Russia by storm may bring end to public anonymity. The Guardian 17 May. Walsh, K. EFF 5 April. Wolf, M. Augmented reality all around us: Power and perception at a crossroads. Zarksy Transparent predictions, SSRN.
Zuboff, S. Big other: Surveillance capitalism and the prospects of an information civilization. Journal of Information Technology, 30 1 , 75— Download references. Employers want to use technology to help them screen applicants and verify information about their workforce, which is understandable. In the module on Human Resource Management you learned about the cost of recruiting, hiring, and training employees. However, what if the company believes that one of the quickest ways to gather information about an employee is to access their social media accounts?
And if they did, is it legally and ethically justified? What would you do if you found yourself in the situation presented in the following video? The fact is that technology has put our information at the fingertips of businesses—there for the taking and, in some cases, the selling. Is it ethical for a business to collect data about a person and then sell that information to another business? Many organizations collect data for their own purposes, but they also realize that your data has value to others. As a result, selling data has become an income stream for many organizations. We have discussed just a few of the emerging ethical issues surrounding business, technology, and personal data. We have yet to touch on security issues and the responsibility business has to protect your data once it has been collected.
Improve this page Learn More. Skip to main content. Search for:. Ethical and Social Issues in Information Technology Learning Outcomes Identify privacy issues associated with information technology Identify ethical issues associated with information technology. Practice Questions. Did you have an idea for improving this content? Luppicini, R.