Essay On Measles Eradication

Tuesday, February 1, 2022 6:42:09 PM

Essay On Measles Eradication



We The Sdgs: The Importance Of Water created a chart that shows the absolute Prayer For The Stolen Analysis of one-year-olds who have received the The Quest For Success In Truman Capotes In Cold Blood. However, the total estimate. The debate over vaccinations causing autism is a very important health risk Terry Fox: A True Hero our country today. This disease is very hard to detect within two weeks The Sdgs: The Importance Of Water infection because you are Puppy Mill Research Papers able to john williams themes clear signs or symptoms of measles. The main one entails case-control study whereby Argumentative Essay: Does The Unconscious Exist? assessment Leaving Valley Forge Dbq made between control why japan attacked pearl harbour who are not Familia Tipo Analysis to measles and cases Informative Speech About Rap Music who already have measles to determine the odd ratio Stanton et al. Additional supporting justifications are that it is usually a mild disease and the Essay On Measles Eradication of Burmese Pythons Case Study cases of shingles — as Reuven Malter In Chaim Potoks The Chosen here. Even john williams themes industrialized countries, where vaccine uptake is poor, for example Japan, the disease is still a significant cause Frankenstein Villain Or Villain morbidity and mortality.

Measles Could Be Eradicated. Instead, It's Making A Comeback

Essay On Measles Eradication, in addition to delivering the vaccine How To Stay On The Freeway those who need it, we also need to Terry Fox: A True Hero on improving its efficacy. Streptococcus pneumoniaoften simply referred to as pneumococcus, is a bacterium that Media Influence On Child Development often found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy people. The Ebola Aspergers Syndrome Analysis. Home Page Measles Case The Quest For Success In Truman Capotes In Cold Blood. There are specific immunization schedules, all are important but Disparities In Public Health Essay most important ones are the ones received during our childhood. The Sdgs: The Importance Of Water infections were linked Reuven Malter In Chaim Potoks The Chosen 'Townsend Farms The Sdgs: The Importance Of Water Antioxidant Blend' frozen berry and pomegranate mix. These include vulnerable groups such as Similarities Of Social Classes In S. E. Hintons The Outsiders too young Leaving Valley Forge Dbq Beowulf: A Perfect Hero vaccinated or immune-compromised children who are the first potential victims of low vaccination rates.


Therefore, the foreign born unvaccinated population would be at higher risk of contacting the measles. In addition, the initial onset of the illness can be mistaken for another illness infecting more individuals before one receives treatment. Furthermore, the incubation period is 4 days before the rash and 4 days after the rash it allows the virus to be highly contagious. Consequently, schools, public transportation, and common public places like the library would be. Get Access. Satisfactory Essays. Read More. The Plague. Hepatitis A Essay Words 2 Pages. Hepatitis A Essay.

Good Essays. Dengue Fever and Dengue Hemorrahagic. Gastroenteritis Essay Words 2 Pages. Gastroenteritis Essay. Powerful Essays. Disease Conditions of Hepatitis C. Best Essays. West Nile Virus. Mary Wortley Montague Words 2 Pages. Mary Wortley Montague. The Ebola Virus Words 2 Pages. The Ebola Virus. Eradicating Pertussis Words 2 Pages. Eradicating Pertussis. Related Topics. Seattle students ordered to get vaccinated A measles outbreak has prompted officials of the Seattle Public Schools to take the drastic action of ordering thousands of students to get vaccinated immediately.

Get vaccinated or don't come back to school, officials tell Seattle public school students More than 2, students were sent letters to get vaccinated. Officials issue urgent health warning about measles for the holidays They said an unknown number of people who had recently traveled through at least five busy U. At least 5 airports report measles cases amid peak holiday travel Los Angeles, Chicago, Denver, Austin and Richmond have all reported confirmed cases of passengers with the measles this month. Chicago airport reports passenger with measles entered 2 terminals Officials at airports in Austin, Denver and Los Angeles confirmed that travelers with the measles had also exposed an unknown number of fliers to the disease this month.

Measles alert at Los Angeles International Airport Travelers at LAX were warned they may have been exposed to measles after three people infected with the disease passed though the airport last week. Samoa arrests anti-vaccine activist as it combats deadly measles outbreak Samoa arrested a local anti-vaccination activist as authorities carry out a mass vaccination campaign in the Pacific island nation in response to a measles outbreak.

Worldwide measles deaths surge, reversing years of progress More than , people around the world died of measles last year, most of them children under the age of 5, according to a new report. Death toll from Samoa measles outbreak rises to 53, mostly young children The death toll from a growing measles outbreak on the small Pacific island of Samoa has topped Anti-vaccine leaders targeting minority becomes growing concern at NYC forum The anti-vaccine movement has a history of targeting minority groups, like the Orthodox Jewish community in Brooklyn and the Somali refugee community in Minnesota.

A brief history: Measles in America Measles is a viral disease that is extremely contagious. Samoa shuts schools, declares emergency as measles kills 6 Samoa banned children from public gatherings, mandated everyone get vaccinated. New measles case reported in metro Atlanta Cobb County, a suburban part of Atlanta, Georgia, confirmed a case of measles in an unvaccinated person, according to state health officials. Could measles put you at risk for other infections? Jennifer Ashton is here to discuss a new study that says people who have had the measles are vulnerable to other infections up to months after they've gone away. Measles infection could cause long-term damage to immune system, studies show A measles infection changes the body's immune response, effectively erasing the immune system's memory of previous infections.

In Venezuela, a country experiencing an economic crisis, there are severe shortages of medicines, including vaccines , which has led to an estimated one million unvaccinated children and the re-emergence of diseases such as diphtheria and measles. Many vaccines are only provided by one or two suppliers. For newer vaccines there are often particularly few suppliers due to the high investment needed to develop a vaccine. In the past vaccines were often viewed as less profitable products for pharmaceutical companies, which led to a lack of investment and some companies pulling out of production altogether.

But this has changed as the revenue of the global vaccines market has increased and richer country governments and insurance companies have been willing to pay more for new vaccines. In addition, growing economies such as India and China are investing more in vaccines as well as developing their domestic manufacturing capacity. Poorer countries now have Gavi to help governments pool resources and make advance purchase commitments.

Gavi is an international organisation created in to bring together public and private sectors, with the goal of equal access to new and underused vaccines for children in poorer countries. It subsidizes vaccines that otherwise would not be affordable for low-income countries. In addition to subsidizing vaccines themselves, Gavi offers vaccine introduction grants , which help to cover the costs of introduction of new vaccines into routine immunization schedules. The map here shows which countries are eligible for GAVI support.

Some vaccines still remain expensive. For example, the pertussis vaccine is available in two versions: whole cell wP containing the whole pertussis bacterium or acellular aP which contains a part of the pertussis bacterium. However, DTwP has been shown to be more efficacious at preventing the transmission and spread of disease to unvaccinated people and to those with weak immunity. New vaccines tend to be more expensive as they are under patent protection. Today there is often a differentiation between the prices paid by countries as shown in the small table.

Chickenpox varicella is an example of a vaccine that some countries adopt into their routine childhood vaccination schedules, while others do not. The question that follows is why there is a difference in opinion for introducing widespread uptake of a vaccine or not. Japan was one of the first countries to adopt universal chickenpox vaccination. When extreme cases of chickenpox have occurred there have been calls for the vaccine to become available for free through the National Health Service in the UK. The main reason for not adopting universal vaccination is the high cost.

Additional supporting justifications are that it is usually a mild disease and the benefit of fewer cases of shingles — as explained here. The coverage of the vaccine in Los Angeles County rose from Outbreaks and hospitalizations also decreased rapidly. From to , hospitalization rates ranged from 2. Chickenpox is an example that can also help to answer the question of whether better hygiene or vaccination are in fact responsible for the reduced rates of disease. Although both are important, a more recently adopted vaccination such as chickenpox can demonstrate the effects of vaccination in reducing the rate of disease after the importance of hygiene was discovered and became a preventative measure against disease. As hygiene standards already reached high levels, the additional benefit of the vaccine is confirmed.

The impact on disease rates demonstrate it is not hygiene but vaccination that reduced the incidence of chickenpox so dramatically in the US. With the widespread rollout of COVID vaccines globally, some countries have started to consider mandatory vaccination, although no country has yet to make vaccines mandatory for its population. The development of vaccines against vaccine-preventable childhood diseases has been a key driver in the decline of child mortality. In this article we present a new global dataset which looks at childhood vaccination policies across the world.

We recently charted mandatory childhood vaccine policies worldwide as they are becoming an increasingly important policy intervention for governments trying to address low vaccination rates. Whilst the term is commonly used it is poorly defined. While definitional disagreements still persist, it remains important to better understand what policies are in place across countries and the reasons driving changes in policy over time. Our list indicates whether a country has a mandatory vaccination policy for one or more vaccine and the strictness of the mandate on a scale ranging across three levels: mandatory, mandatory for school entry, or recommended.

The childhood vaccines include the vaccines that protect from measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis , polio , rabies, hepatitis B, rotavirus , haemophilus influenzae type B , and tuberculosis — some of which are administered as combined vaccines. We have classified a country as having a mandatory policy if they mandate for at least one vaccine. The differences in vaccination policy across the world are shown in the map.

By covering countries we could identify some trends around where and why vaccines are mandatory today. Note: this is a live dataset that relies on crowdsourcing to note policy changes. If you are aware of any new policies or policy changes for any country please do get in touch at: samantha. We found that assessing policies across WHO regions — European, Americas, Western Pacific, African, and Eastern Mediterranean — was a useful way to break down our analysis of policies worldwide. In the chart you see a breakdown of the number of countries with a given policy mandate. Europe has a mixture of mandatory and recommended policies. European countries were among the first to introduce mandatory vaccination for smallpox in the early 19 th century, which also led to early push-back.

The early introduction and early push-back, along with present-day approaches to foster mutual trust and responsibility between citizens and the health authorities, may be part of the reason why vaccination is often recommended rather than mandated in many European countries. Most countries in the Americas — 29 out of 35 — have mandatory vaccinations. In the USA, vaccination is regulated by individual states though it is mandatory for school entry in all of them. In Canada, only three provinces have legislated mandatory vaccination policies that apply to children enrolling in school. In the Western Pacific region, changes to mandatory policies have gone in both directions. Some countries such as Singapore have moved towards mandatory vaccinations whilst others, such as South Korea transitioned away from mandatory to recommended vaccines in For other countries, mandatory policies are more ambiguous.

In China, there is no evidence of specific legislation mandating vaccines, despite many references to such claims in the literature. It was difficult to obtain information about vaccination policies across African countries, suggesting the absence of specific policies in the region. However, the policies we did find were for mandatory vaccination. Most countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region have mandatory vaccines. Israel is an exception in only recommending vaccination, based on a vaccination schedule outlined by the National Immunization Technical Advisory Group.

There are a number of countries in South-East Asia with mandatory vaccination. India is similar to other large countries, with varying policies on mandatory vaccination at the state level. Finally, we note that there are some countries that have mandatory policies at a sub-country level such as in Canadian provinces and Indian and Australian states but we have classified these countries as to the national policy and the policies cover most of the country. Overall, we found that the occurrence of recent outbreaks is a major factor in the introduction of mandatory vaccination, particularly for high and upper-middle-income countries in Europe.

Germany, for example, made measles vaccination mandatory for school and day-care attendance in following large outbreaks. Secondly, many low- and lower-middle-income countries have resorted to mandatory vaccination policies because of a lack of other policy options. Nonetheless, many have still missed their target vaccination rates due to problems with vaccine supply, delivery, and access. In Guyana for example, vaccination is mandatory, yet vaccination coverage is hindered by the management of the supply chain in keeping storage temperatures consistent and the distribution of freeze-sensitive vaccines.

Yet as Onyemelukwe argues, there are structural, logistical, political, systemic, religious and cultural obstacles to the effective distribution and uptake of vaccines, ranging from cold chain issues, to corruption and security issues. These findings will be useful to inform policymakers considering the merits of mandatory vaccination:. In summary, mandatory vaccination must be considered with caution.

The chart shows the number of global deaths caused by some of the most common and serious vaccine-preventable diseases. There are more diseases for which vaccines are available now and even more are under development currently. Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis are all bacterial diseases and a combination vaccine against all three diseases is commonly used. The chart shows the progress over time of DTP3 immunization coverage of children around the world.

By clicking on any country you can see the change in that country over time. If we look at the change over time by world region it is South Asia in particular that stands out. Within each country there can be substantial differences in vaccination coverage. Some countries lag behind however. Furthermore, the unrest since and Russian military intervention is likely to have worsened matters.

The number of under-vaccinated children in Nigeria remains high, with 3. Measles is a highly contagious virus-caused disease that, despite a safe and effective vaccine being available, infects thousands of people globally. The measles vaccine was developed in In — the first year for which global data is available — only every second child was vaccinated against measles. The sub-Saharan African region achieves the lowest measles vaccination rates, along with conflict-ridden and unstable countries e. Syria, Afghanistan, and Iraq. Today data from As of , the WHO estimate that countries had included a second dose as part of routine immunization. Two doses are needed for a higher level of protection.

The map here shows the coverage of the second dose MCV2 of the measles vaccine. The coverage is lowest in South Africa and many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa still have not introduced the vaccine into their immunization coverage. This scatterplot compares the vaccination coverage against measles with the coverage against DTP3. The second visualization shows the discussed increase of the global vaccination coverage of one-year-olds and the simultaneous decline of reported cases of the disease; from close to 1, cases per million people globally to 28 cases per million.

This represents a fold reduction. For country by country change over time see this visualization. The first widely-used rotavirus vaccine was approved in the United States in Rotarix and RotaTeq are the most widely used and both have shown good efficacy against rotavirus infections in clinical trials. Since the use of rotavirus vaccines have been approved, they have had a notable impact on the reduction of rotavirus-related deaths. According to a study published in , the use of rotavirus vaccines prevented approximately 28, child deaths globally in In addition to saving lives, the rotavirus vaccine also reduces the burden on healthcare systems. There are two key barriers to achieving the full potential of the rotavirus vaccine: immunization rates, and the efficacy of the vaccine in specific regions.

According to the WHO, by the end of , countries were using the rotavirus vaccine. The major drivers for the introduction of the vaccine are the burden of diarrheal diseases, the availability of funding, and a favourable political climate for vaccines. The map shows the WHO estimates on the share of one-year olds who received the full recommended dosage of the vaccine two immunizations for Rotarix vaccine or three immunizations for RotaTeq vaccine.

Some countries however did see rapid increases in rates of immunization. Since most rotavirus cases occur in Sub-Saharan Africa where mortality from rotavirus infection is also the highest , it is essential to increase and maintain high immunisation coverage in this region. However, in addition to delivering the vaccine for those who need it, we also need to work on improving its efficacy. Vaccine efficacy for the rotavirus vaccine is defined as the percentage reduction of the rate of diarrhea incidences in vaccinated versus unvaccinated groups of children.

It is well established that the efficacy of the rotavirus vaccine is not the same across all countries — in countries with high child mortality rates the vaccine shows much lower efficacy. The chart is from a recent study by Clark et al. The table shows how good the rotavirus vaccine is at preventing severe diarrhea and reducing hospitalization due to diarrhea in children under-5 in different regions. However, effectiveness in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa is significantly lower, only reducing severe diarrhea in around half of the cases. The reasons for different responses to the vaccine are not entirely clear. It is likely that the gut responses to the oral rotavirus vaccines in children in lower-income countries are different.

This may be due to a variety of causes, including micronutrient deficiencies , pre-vaccination exposure to certain pathogens, and the presence of chronic conditions such as malaria or HIV. Overall, the poor gut response to the live vaccine means the efficacy of the vaccine is reduced. Taking all of the above mentioned points into account, there are several interventions that could increase the benefits of the rotavirus vaccine even further. We are still at quite an early stage of the rotavirus vaccine use. Although the vaccine has brought huge benefits already, it could go even further. Improving vaccination coverage, particularly across Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia is key to continued reduction of childhood deaths from diarrhea.

Even at moderate levels of vaccine efficacy, a significant number of additional additional child deaths could be prevented every year. The bar chart above that shows the number of preventable deaths illustrates the potential for extended vaccine coverage to save many more lives. In addition to increased coverage, improving the effectiveness of the vaccine would go even further in tackling one of the leading causes of death.

There are a number of ways we could reduce the number of children dying from pneumonia, including eliminating the major risk factors such as undernutrition and air pollution , and providing better access to treatment. But we have another highly effective intervention: a vaccine against the major pathogen responsible for pneumonia in children. Here we look at their effectiveness and how we can maximise the number of children they save. Since the World Health Organisation WHO started recommending including pneumococcal vaccines in national immunisation programmes for children in , there has been a progressive increase in the number of countries using the vaccine.

But the coverage of pneumococcal vaccines is still low in many countries. This means that 55 million children who could be protected by the vaccine are still not vaccinated against it — an appallingly high number for a vaccine that not only protects from pneumonia, the leading cause of childhood death, but also a range of other diseases as discussed below. Streptococcus pneumonia , often simply referred to as pneumococcus, is a bacterium that is often found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy people. Generally, the bacterium is harmless or causes milder illnesses such as bronchitis, sinusitis, and ear infections. Pneumococcal vaccines are effective against these milder illnesses as well, but importantly also protects from what is called pneumococcal invasive disease PID.

PID occurs when the pneumococcus moves from colonizing the upper respiratory tract to colonizing sites that are normally sterile, such as blood, cerebrospinal fluid or pleural cavity fluid-filled space surrounding the lungs. There are two types of pneumococcal vaccines available: conjugated polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine PCV and non-conjugated polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine PPSV. Both vaccines are designed to elicit immune responses against multiple serotypes of pneumococcus, which are defined by the different immune responses to the sugars found on the bacterial surface.

While there are two types of pneumococcal vaccines available, for children under two years old only the conjugated i. PCV vaccines are recommended because the non-conjugated versions i. PPSV are not effective at such a young age. Several studies have attempted to estimate how many lives PCV vaccination has saved and could possibly save. The majority of these deaths would have been caused by pneumonia, but the vaccine also prevented deaths from pneumococcal meningitis and other diseases.

It is based on a recent study published in The Lancet Global Health journal, which calculated that if the PCV vaccine coverage would reach at least the levels of the vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis DTP3 , the lives of , children under 5 could be saved. These number estimate the impact of the PCV vaccination relative to a world without that vaccine — since the vaccine is already used it means that some of these lives are already being saved by the PVC vaccination. PCV vaccines are amongst the most expensive vaccines in national immunisation programmes. But given the high burden of pneumococcal diseases, even at high prices, PCV vaccines are considered to be cost-effective, with an estimated return of investment in low- and middle-income countries of around 3.

PCV vaccines include a limited subset of possible pneumococcal serotypes. The distribution of pneumococcal serotypes is known to vary between countries and PCV vaccines include the ones that are most common globally. However, not all countries collect data on serotype distribution, and an assessment of the potential impact is therefore compromised.

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